|BRIGADIER GENERAL JAMES A. McDIVITT|
Born: June 10, 1929 in Chicago, Illinois
James A. McDivitt (Brigadier. General, U.S. Air Force Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Former)
PERSONAL DATA: Born June 10, 1929, in Chicago,
Illinois. His mother Mrs. James McDivitt, resides in Jackson, Michigan. Married.
Four children and two step-children. Recreational interests include hunting,
fishing, golf, water sports, tennis, and all outdoor activities.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Kalamazoo Central High
School, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Jackson Junior College, Jackson, Michigan, received
a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of
Michigan (graduated first in class) in 1959 and an Honorary Doctorate in
Astronautical Science from the University of Michigan in 1965; Honorary Doctor
of Science, Seton Hall University, 1969; Honorary Doctor of Science, Miami
University (Ohio), 1970; Honorary Doctor of Laws, Eastern Michigan University,
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Society of
Experimental Test Pilots, the American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics, Tau Beta Pi, and Phi Kappa Phi. Atlantic Council on Foreign
Diplomacy, Advisory Council-University of Michigan.
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded two NASA Distinguished
Service Medals; NASA Exceptional Service Medal; two Air Force Distinguished
Service Medals; four Distinguished Flying Crosses; five Air Medals; the Chong
Moo Medal from South Korea; the USAF Air Force Systems Command Aerospace Primus
Award; the Arnold Air Society JFK Trophy; the Sword of Loyola; and the Michigan
Wolverine Frontiersman Award, USAF Astronaut Wings.
EXPERIENCE: McDivitt joined the Air Force in
1951 and retired with the rank of Brig. General. He flew 145 combat missions
during the Korean War in F-80s and F-86s.
He is a graduate of the USAF Experimental Test Pilot
School and the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot course and served as an
experimental test pilot at Edwards Air Force Base, California.
He has logged over 5,000 flying hours.
NASA EXPERIENCE: General McDivitt was selected
as an astronaut by NASA in September 1962.
He was command pilot for Gemini 4, a 66-orbit 4-day
mission that began on June 3, and ended June 7, 1965. Highlights of the mission
included a controlled extra-vehicular activity period and a number of
He was commander of Apollo 9, a 10-day earth orbital
flight launched on March 3, 1969. This was the first flight of the complete set
of Apollo hardware and was the first flight of the Lunar Module.
He became Manager of Lunar Landing Operations in May
1969, and led a team that planned the lunar exploration program and redesigned
the spacecraft to accomplish this task. In August 1969, he became Manager of the
Apollo Spacecraft Program and was the program manger for Apollo 12, 13, 14, 15
He retired from the USAF and left NASA in June 1972, to
take the position of Executive Vice-President, Corporate Affairs for Consumers
Power Company. In March 1975, he joined Pullman, Inc. as Executive
Vice-President and a Director. In October 1975 he became President of the
Pullman Standard Division, The Railcar Division, and later had additional
responsibility for the leasing and engineering and construction areas of the
company. In January 1981 he joined Rockwell International where he is presently
Senior Vice President, Government Operations and Rockwell International
Corporation, Washington, D.C.
2009 The Apollo Years (in person), 2009 NASA: Triumph and Tragedy (in person), 2008-2009 When We Left Earth: The NASA Missions (in person), 2007 Secrets of the Moon Landings (Other), 2003 Project Gemini: A Bridge to the Moon (in person), 1994 Moon Shot (in person), 1989 For All Mankind (Other), 1974 The Brady Bunch (in person)
COLONEL DAVID R. SCOTT
Born: June 6, 1932 in San Antonio, Texas
David R. Scott (Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Retired)
PERSONAL DATA: Born June 6, 1932, in San Antonio, Texas. Married.
Two children. Recreational interests include swimming, handball, skiing, and
EDUCATION: Graduated from Western High School, Washington, D.C.;
received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Military Academy
and the degrees of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics and
Engineer in Aeronautics and Astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology; awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Astronautical Science from the
University of Michigan in 1971. He has graduated from the Air Force Experimental
Test Pilots School and Aerospace Research Pilots School.
ORGANIZATIONS: Scott is a fellow of the American Astronautical
Society, Associate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics, and member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, and Tau
Beta Pi, Sigma Xi and Sigma Gamma Tau.
SPECIAL HONORS: Two NASA Distinguished Service Medals, the NASA
Exceptional Service Medal, two Air Force Distinguished Service Medals, the Air
Force Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Force Association's David C. Schilling
Trophy and the Robert J. Collier Trophy for 1971.
EXPERIENCE: Scott graduated fifth in a class of 633 at West Point
and subsequently chose an Air Force career. He completed pilot training at Webb
Air Force Base, Texas, in 1955 and then reported for gunnery training at
Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas, and Luke Air Force Base, Arizona.
He was assigned to the 32d Tactical Fighter squadron at Soesterberg Air Base
(RNAF), Netherlands, from April 1956 to July 1960. Upon completing this tour of
duty, he returned to he United States for study at the Massachusetts Institute
He retired from the Air Force in March 1975 with the rank of Colonel and over
5600 hours of flying time.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Scott was one of the third group of astronauts
named by NASA in October 1963.
On March 16, 1966, he and command pilot Neil Armstrong were launched into
space on the Gemini 8 mission--a flight originally scheduled to last three days
but terminated early due to a malfunctioning thruster. The crew performed the
first successful docking of two vehicles in space and demonstrated great
piloting skill in overcoming the thruster problem and bringing the spacecraft to
a safe landing.
Scott served as command module pilot for Apollo 9, March 3-13, 1969. This was
the third manned flight in the Apollo series, the second to be launched by a
Saturn V, and the first to complete a comprehensive earth-orbital qualification
and verification test of a "fully configured Apollo spacecraft." The ten-day
flight provided vital information previously not available on the operational
performance, stability, and reliability of lunar module propulsion and life
support systems. Highlight of this evaluation was completion of a critical
lunar-orbit rendezvous simulation and subsequent docking, initiated by James
McDivitt and Russell Schweickart from within the lunar module at a separation
distance which exceeded 100 miles from the command/service module piloted by
Scott. The crew also demonstrated and confirmed the operational feasibility of
crew transfer and extravehicular activity techniques and equipment, with
Schweickart completing a 46-minute EVA outside the lunar module. During this
period, Dave Scott completed a 1-hour stand-up EVA in the open command module
hatch photographing Schweickart's activities and also retrieving thermal samples
from the command module exterior. Apollo 9 splashed down less than four miles
from the helicopter carrier USS GUADALCANAL.
In his next assignment, Scott was designated backup spacecraft commander for
He made his third space flight as spacecraft commander of Apollo 15, July 26
- August 7, 1971. His companions on the flight were Alfred M. Worden (command
module pilot) and James B. Irwin (lunar module pilot). Apollo 15 was the fourth
manned lunar landing mission and the first to visit and explore the moon's
Hadley Rille and Apennine Mountains which are located on the southeast edge of
the Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains). The lunar module, "Falcon," remained on the
lunar surface for 66 hours and 54 minutes (setting a new record for lunar
surface stay time) and Scott and Irwin logged 18 hours and 35 minutes each in
extravehicular activities conducted during three separate excursions onto the
lunar surface. Using "Rover-1" to transport themselves and their equipment along
portions of Hadley Rille and the Apennine Mountains, Scott and Irwin performed a
selenological inspection and survey of the area and collected 180 pounds of
lunar surface materials. They deployed an ALSEP package which involved the
emplacement and activation of surface experiments, and their lunar surface
activities were televised using a TV camera which was operated remotely by
ground controllers stationed in the mission control center located at Houston,
Texas. Other Apollo 15 achievements include: largest payloads ever placed into
earth and lunar orbits; first scientific instrument module bay flown and
operated on an Apollo spacecraft; longest distance traversed on lunar surface;
first use of a lunar surface navigation device (mounted on Rover-1); first
subsatellite launched in lunar orbit; and first extravehicular (EVA) from a
command module during transearth coast. The latter feat performed by Worden
during three excursions to "Endeavour's" SIM-bay where he retrieved film
cassettes from the panoramic and mapping cameras and reported his personal
observations of the general condition of equipment housed there. Apollo 15
concluded with a Pacific Ocean splashdown and subsequent recovery by the USS
He has logged 546 hours and 54 minutes in space, of which 20 hours and 46
minutes were in Extravehicular Activity. He is only one of three Astronauts who
have flown both earth orbital and lunar Apollo Missions.
Born: October 25, 1935 in Neptune Township, New Jersey
Russell L. Schweickart
Russell L. (Rusty) Schweickart is a retired business and government executive
and serves today as Chairman of the Board of the B612 Foundation. The
organization, a non-profit private foundation, champions the development and
testing of a spaceflight concept to protect the Earth from future asteroid
Schweickart retired from ALOHA Networks, Inc. in 1998
where he served as President and CEO from 1996 through 1998. ALOHA was a data
communications company specializing in high performance, wireless internet
Schweickart was formerly the Executive Vice President of
CTA Commercial Systems, Inc. and Director of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Systems.
Schweickart led CTA's efforts in developing the GEMnet system, a second
generation LEO communication satellite constellation designed to provide regular
commercial electronic messaging services on a global basis. Prior to his CTA
work Schweickart founded and was president of Courier Satellite Services, Inc.,
a global satellite communications company which developed LEO satellites to
provide worldwide affordable data services
Schweickart's satellite and telecommunications work
involved him in the development of international communications regulations and
policies, including participation in the 1992 and 1995 World Radiocommunications
Conferences (WRC) of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). He served
at the 1995 WRC as a U.S. delegate. He also worked extensively in Russia and the
former Soviet Union on scientific and telecommunications matters.
Schweickart is the founder and past president of the Association of Space
Explorers (ASE), the international professional society of astronauts and
cosmonauts. The organization promotes the cooperative exploration and
development of space and the use of space technology for human benefit. The ASE
has a current membership of over 300 astronauts and cosmonauts from 29 nations.
The Association's first book, The Home Planet, with a preface by Schweickart,
was published simultaneously in 10 nations in the Fall of 1988 and was an
immediate international best seller.
In 1987-88, Schweickart chaired the United States
Antarctic Program Safety Review Panel for the Director of the National Science
Foundation (NSF) in Washington, DC. The resulting report, Safety in Antarctica,
a comprehensive on-site review of all U.S. activities in Antarctica, led to a
restructuring of the program, increasing the safety of operations in that
hazardous environment. At the request of the National Science Foundation,
Schweickart also served on the 1997-1998 United States Antarctic Program Outside
Review Panel, which reported to the Whitehouse (OSTP) and Congress on the future
of US facilities in Antarctica. The US' Amundson-Scott South Pole station has
recently been fully rebuilt as a result of this work.
In 1977 Schweickart joined the staff of Governor Jerry
Brown of California, and served in the Governor's office for two years as his
assistant for science and technology. In 1979 Schweickart was appointed to the
post of Commissioner of Energy for the State of California and served on the
Commission for five and a half years. The Commission, which was chaired by
Schweickart for three and a half years, was responsible for all aspects of
energy regulation in the state other than rate setting, including energy demand
forecasting, alternative energy development, powerplant siting and energy
performance regulation for appliances and buildings.
Schweickart joined NASA as one of 14 astronauts named in
October 1963, the third group of astronauts selected. He served as lunar module
pilot for Apollo 9, March 3-13, 1969, logging 241 hours in space. This was the
third manned flight of the Apollo series and the first manned flight of the
lunar module. During a 46 minute EVA Schweickart tested the portable life
support backpack which was subsequently used on the lunar surface explorations.
On the mission with Schweickart were commander James A. McDivitt and command
module pilot David R. Scott.
Schweickart served as backup commander for the first
Skylab mission which flew in the Spring of 1973. Following the loss of the
thermal shield during the launch of the Skylab vehicle, he assumed
responsibility for the development of hardware and procedures associated with
erecting the emergency solar shade and deployment of the jammed solar array
wing, operations which transformed Skylab from an imminent disaster to a highly
After the Skylab program, Schweickart went to NASA
Headquarters in Washington, DC as Director of User Affairs in the Office of
Applications. In this position he was responsible for transferring NASA
technology to the outside world and working with technology users to bring an
understanding of their needs into NASA.
Prior to joining NASA, Schweickart was a research
scientist at the Experimental Astronomy Laboratory of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT). His work at MIT involved research in upper
atmospheric physics, star tracking and the stabilization of stellar images. His
thesis for a master's degree at MIT was an experimental validation of
theoretical models of stratospheric radiance.
Schweickart served as a fighter pilot in the U.S. Air
Force and the Massachusetts Air National Guard from 1956 to 1963. He has logged
over 4000 hours of flight time, including 3500 hours in high performance jet
Schweickart was awarded the NASA Distinguished Service
Medal (1969) and the Federation Aeronautique Internationale De La Vaux Medal
(1970) for his Apollo 9 flight. He also received the National Academy of
Television Arts and Sciences Special Trustees Award (Emmy) in 1969 for
transmitting the first live TV pictures from space. In 1973 Schweickart was
awarded the NASA Exceptional Service Medal for his leadership role in the Skylab
He is a Fellow of the American Astronautical Society and
the International Academy of Astronautics, and an Associate Fellow of the
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Schweickart is an Honorary
Trustee and a Fellow of the California Academy of Sciences.
Schweickart was born on 25 October 1935 in Neptune, NJ. He is married to Nancy Ramsey of West Hartford, CT. He has seven
children and eleven grandchildren. He graduated from Manasquan High School, NJ;
received his Bachelor of Science degree in 1956 and his Master of Science degree
in 1963, both from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
His hobbies include golf, bicycling, and