|VALERI N. KUBASOV|
Born: January 7, 1935 in Vyazniki, Vladimir Oblast, USSR
Died: February 19, 2014 in Moscow, Russia
Valeri Nikolayevich Kubasov (born 7 January 1935 in
Vyazniki) is a former Soviet cosmonaut who flew on two missions in the Soyuz
programme as a flight engineer: Soyuz 6 and Soyuz 19 (the Apollo-Soyuz mission),
and commanded Soyuz 36 in the Intercosmos programme. On 21 July 1975, the Soyuz
7K-TM module used for ASTP landed in Kazakhstan at 5:51 p.m. and Kubasov was the
first to exit the craft.
He was also involved in the development of
the Mir space station. He retired from the Soviet space program in March 1993.
He was later deputy director of RKK Energia.
Kubasov seems to have
cheated death twice during his space career. He was part of the crew that was
originally intended to fly Soyuz 2, which was found to have the same faulty
parachute sensor that resulted in Vladimir Komarov's death on Soyuz 1 and was
later launched without a crew. Later, he was grounded for medical reasons before
the Soyuz 11 flight, which killed the crew when the capsule was accidentally
depressurised by a faulty valve.
1998 Cold War (in person), 1980 Target... Earth (Other)
MAJOR GENERAL ALEXEI LEONOV
Born: May 30, 1934 in Kemerovo Oblast, USSR
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov was born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, Kemerovo
Oblast, Soviet Union, is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut and Air Force Major
General who, on 18 March 1965, became the first human to conduct an
extra-vehicular activity (EVA), also known as a space walk.
Leonov was one of the 20 Soviet Air Force pilots selected to be part of the
first cosmonaut group in 1960. Like all the Soviet cosmonauts Leonov was a
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. His walk in space was
originally to have taken place on the Vostok 11 mission, but this was cancelled,
and the historic event happened on the Voskhod 2 flight instead. He was outside
the spacecraft for 12 minutes and nine seconds on 18 March 1965, connected to
the craft by a 5.35-meter tether. At the end of the spacewalk, Leonov's
spacesuit had inflated in the vacuum of space to the point where he could not
re-enter the airlock. He opened a valve to allow some of the suit's pressure to
bleed off, and was barely able to get back inside the capsule. Leonov had spent
some eighteen months undergoing intensive weightlessness training for the
LT. GENERAL THOMAS P. STAFFORD
Born: September 17, 1930 in Weatherford, Oklahoma
THOMAS P. STAFFORD, Lieutenant General, USAF (Retired)
PERSONAL DATA: Born September 17, 1930, in Weatherford, Oklahoma.
Married to the former Linda Ann Dishman of Chelsea, Oklahoma. They have two
sons, Michael Thomas and Stanislav Stas Patten. First marriage was to the former
Faye L. Shoemaker. They have two daughters, Dionne Kay and Karin Elaine as well
as two grandsons, Thomas P. Stafford II and Andrew Alexi Harrison. Linda has two
children from a previous marriage, Kassie Neering and Mark Hill, and four
grandchildren: Sloane, Lee, Marcus and Tara. He enjoys hunting, scuba diving,
fishing and deep sea fishing and swimming.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Weatherford High School, Weatherford,
Oklahoma; received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval
Academy in 1952. In addition, General Stafford is the recipient of several
honorary degrees. These include a doctorate of laws from the University of
Cordoba, Argentina, a doctorate of humane letters, University of Oklahoma and a
masters of humane letters, Southwestern University, Weatherford, Oklahoma; a
doctorate of science from Oklahoma City University; a doctorate of laws, Western
State University, Los Angeles California; doctorate of communications, Emerson
College, Boston, Massachusetts; a doctorate of aeronautical engineering,
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, and a doctorate of
humanities, Oklahoma Christian College, Edmond, Oklahoma.
ORGANIZATION: Fellow of the American Astronautical Society, American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Society of Experimental Test
Pilots, and a member of the Masonic Lodge.
SPECIAL HONORS: NASA Distinguished Service Medals (2), NASA
Exceptional Service Medals (2), Air Force Distinguished Service Medal with 3 Oak
Leaf Clusters, Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross with one Oak Leaf Cluster,
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with one Oak Leaf Cluster, Air Force
Commendation Medal, Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings. Other awards
include the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Chanute
Flight Award, the Veterans of Foreign Wars National Space Award, National
Geographic Society's General Thomas D. White USAF Space Trophy, Federation
Aeronautique Internationale Gold Space Medal. In 1966, he was co-recipient of
the IAAA Award. He was honored with the Harmon International Aviation Trophy in
1966 and 1976. In 1969 he received the National Academy of Television Arts and
Sciences Special Trustees Award and in 1978 the Los Angeles Area Chamber of
Commerce Kitty Hawk Sands of Time Award; received the Society of Experimental
Test Pilots James H. Doolittle Award for Management, September 1979, October
1979, received the NASA Medal for outstanding leadership, one of the Agency's
highest awards. In 1993 General Stafford was the eighth recipient of the
Congressional Space Medal of Honor. He was inducted into the Astronaut Hall of
Fame and received the Rotary National Award for Space Achievement (RNASA). He
served as the Chairman of the Operations Oversight Committee of the first Hubble
Telescope Spacecraft Servicing and Repair Mission that corrected the design and
manufacturing defect of the instrument. In 1994, NASA recognized his tremendous
efforts and presented him with the NASA Public Service Award for the Hubble
Telescope Service and Repair Mission. General Stafford was inducted into the
Oklahoma Commerce and Industry Hall of Honor in October 1994, and to the
National Aviation Hall of Fame and the Aerospace Walk of Honor in
EXPERIENCE: General Stafford graduated with honors in 1952 from the
U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland, and was commissioned a second
lieutenant in the United States Air Force. He received his pilot wings at
Connally AFB, Waco, Texas, in September 1953. He completed advanced interceptor
training and was assigned to the 54th Flight Interceptor Squadron, Ellsworth
AFB, Rapid City, South Dakota. In December 1955 he was assigned to the 496th
Fighter Interceptor Squadron, Hahn Air Base, Germany, where he performed the
duties of pilot, flight leader, and flight test maintenance office, flying
F-86Ds. He was an instructor in flight test training and specialized academic
subjects-establishing basic textbooks and directing the writing of flight test
manuals for use by the staff and students. He is co-author of the Pilot's
Handbook for Performance Flight Testing and the Aerodynamics Handbook for
Performance Flight Testing.
General Stafford was selected among the second group of astronauts in
September 1962 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to
participate in Projects Gemini and Apollo. In December 1965, he piloted Gemini
VI the first rendezvous in space, and helped develop techniques to prove the
basic theory and practicality of space rendezvous. In June 1966 he commanded
Gemini IX and performed a demonstration of an early rendezvous that would be
used in Apollo, the first optical rendezvous, and a lunar orbit abort
rendezvous. From August 1966 to October 1968 he headed the mission planning
analysis and software development responsibilities for the astronaut group for
General Stafford was the lead member of the group, which helped formulate the
sequence of missions leading to the first lunar landing mission. He demonstrated
and implemented the theory of a pilot manually flying the Saturn booster into
orbit and the translunar injection maneuver.
General Stafford was commander of Apollo 10 in May 1969, first flight of the
lunar module to the moon, performed the first rendezvous around the Moon, and
performed the entire lunar landing mission except the actual landing.
He also made reconnaissance and tracking on future Apollo landing sites.
General Stafford was cited in the Guinness Book of World Records for highest
speed ever attained by man, that occurred during Apollo 10 reentry when the
spacecraft attained 24,791 statute miles per hour.
He was assigned as head of the astronaut group in June 1969, responsible for
the selection of flight crews for projects Apollo and Skylab. He reviewed and
monitored flight crew training status reports, and was responsible for
coordination, scheduling, and control of all activities involving NASA
In June 1971, General Stafford was assigned as Deputy Director of Flight Crew
Operations at the NASA Manned Space flight Center. He was responsible for
assisting the director in planning and implementation of programs for the
astronaut group, the Aircraft Operations, Flight Crew Integration, Flight Crew
Procedures, and Crew Simulation and Training Divisions.
He logged his fourth space flight as Apollo commander of the Apollo-Soyuz
Test Project (ASTP) mission, July 15-24, 1975, a joint space flight culminating
in the historic first meeting in space between American Astronauts and Soviet
General Stafford was the first member of his Naval Academy Class of 1952 to
pin on the first, second and third stars of a General Officer. He has flown six
rendezvous in space; logged 507 hours and 43 minutes in space flight and wore
the Air Force command Pilot Astronaut Wings. He has flown over 127 different
types of aircraft and helicopters and four different types of spacecraft.
General Stafford assumed command of the Air Force Flight Test Center November
4, 1975. He was promoted to the grade of Major General August 9, 1975, with date
of rank of June 1, 1973.
Gen. Stafford was promoted Lt. Gen. on March 15, 1978 and on May 1, 1978
assumed the duties as the Deputy Chief of Staff, Research, Development and
Acquisition, HQ USAF, Wash., DC. During this time Gen. Stafford was personally
involved in initiating the F-117A Stealth Fighter. In early 1979, he wrote the
initial desired specifications on and started the advanced technology bomber
development, now designated the B-2 Stealth Bomber. Gen. Stafford retired from
the Air Force in November 1979.
In June of 1990, Vice President Quayle and Admiral Richard Truly, then NASA
Administrator, asked General Stafford to Chair a team to independently advise
NASA how to carry out President Bush's vision of returning to the Moon, this
time to stay, and then go on to explore Mars. General Stafford assembled teams
of 40 full-time and 150 part-time members from the DOD, DOE and NASA, and
completed the study called "America at the Threshold", a road map for the
next 30 years of the U.S. Manned Space Flight Program. General Stafford and Vice
President Quayle held a joint Press Conference at the White House in June 1991
to announce the recommendations to the public. The Clinton Administration
directed a review of all federally-funded research and development plans of the
Executive Branch in 1994. Gen. Stafford chaired the committee to review and make
recommendations to enhance the efficiency of the R&D initiatives of the NASA
Human Exploration Enterprise that included JSC, KSC, MSFC and SSFC.
He co-founded the Technical Consulting Firm of Stafford, Burke, and Hecker,
Inc. in Alexandria, Virginia. He sits on the Board of Directors of six
corporations listed on the New York Stock Exchange, one listed on the American
Exchange, and two others, including Seagate Technology, Inc. Seagate Technology
is the largest independent hard disk drive maker in the world. He has served as
an advisor to a number of governmental agencies including NASA and the Air Force
Systems Command. He was a defense advisor to Ronald Reagan during the
presidential campaign and a member of the Reagan transition team. He served on
the National Research Council's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; the
Committee on NASA Scientific and Technological Program Reviews and Vice
President Quayle's Space Policy Advisory Council. He was Chairman of the NASA
Advisory Council Task Force on Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions, is
currently Chairman of the NASA Advisory Council Task Force on ISS Operational
Readiness, and Co-Chairman of the Stafford-Covey Space Shuttle Return to Flight
MAJOR DONALD SLAYTON
Born: March 1, 1924 in Sparta, Wisconsin
Died: June 13, 1993 in League City, Texas
Deke Slayton (Mr.)
PERSONAL DATA: Born March 1, 1924, in Sparta,
Wisconsin. Died June 13, 1993. He is survived by wife, Bobbie, and son,
EDUCATION: Graduated from Sparta High School;
received a bachelor of science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1949.
ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow of the Society of
Experimental Test Pilots and the American Astronautical Society; associate
fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; member of the
Experimental Aircraft Association, the Space Pioneers, and the Confederate Air
Force; life member of the Order of Daedalians, the National Rifle Association of
America, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, and the Fraternal Order of Eagles;
honorary member of the American Fighter Aces Association, and the National WWII
Glider Pilots Association.
SPECIAL HONORS: NASA Distinguished Service Medal
(3); NASA Exceptional Service Medal; the Collier Trophy; the SETP Iven C.
Kincheloe Award; the Gen. Billy Mitchell Award; the SEPT J.H. Doolittle Award
(1972); the National Institute of Social Sciences Gold Medal (1975); the Zeta
Beta Tau's Richard Gottheil Medal (1975); the Wright Brothers International
Manned Space Flight Award (1975); the Veterans of Foreign Wars National Space
Award (1976); the American Heart Association's Heart of the Year Award (1976);
the District 35-R Lions International American of the Year Award (1976); the
AIAA Special Presidential Citation (1977); the University of Minnesota's
Outstanding Achievement Award (1977); the Houston Area Federal Business
Association's Civil Servant of the Year Award (1977); the AAS Flight
Achievement Award for 1976 (1977); the AIAA Haley Astronautics Award for 1978;
the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (1978); honorary doctorate in Science from
Carthage College, Carthage, Illinois, in 1961; honorary doctorate in Engineering
from Michigan Technological University in Houghton, Michigan, in
EXPERIENCE: Slayton entered the Air Force as an
aviation cadet and received his wings in April 1943 after completing flight
training at Vernon and Waco, Texas.
As a B-25 pilot with the 340th Bombardment Group, he flew
56 combat missions in Europe. He returned to the United States in mid-1944 as a
B-25 instructor pilot at Columbia, South Carolina, and later served with a unit
responsible for checking pilot proficiency in the A-26. In April 1945, he was
sent to Okinawa with the 319th Bombardment Group and flew seven combat missions
over Japan. He served as a B-25 instructor for one year following the end of the
war and subsequently left the Air Force to enter the University of Minnesota. He
became an aeronautical engineer after graduation and worked for two years with
the Boeing Aircraft Corporation at Seattle, Washington, before being recalled to
active duty in 1951 with the Minnesota Air National Guard.
Upon reporting for duty, he was assigned as maintenance
flight test officer of an F-51 squadron located in Minneapolis, followed by
18-months as a technical inspector at Headquarters Twelfth Air Force, and a
similar tour as fighter pilot and maintenance office with the 36th Fighter Day
Wing at Bitburg, Germany. Returning to the United States in June 1955, he
attended the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California. He
was a test pilot there from January 1956 until April 1959 and participated in
the testing of fighter aircraft built for the United States Air Force and some
He has logged more than 6,600 hours flying time, including
5,100 hours in jet aircraft.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Mr. Slayton was named as one of
the Mercury astronauts in April 1959. He was originally scheduled to pilot the
Mercury-Atlas 7 mission but was relieved of this assignment due to a heart
condition discovered in August 1959.
Mr. Slayton became Coordinator of Astronaut Activities in
September 1962 and was responsible for the operation of the astronaut office. In
November 1963, he resigned his commission as an Air Force Major to assume the
role of Director of Flight Crew Operations. In this capacity, he was responsible
for directing the activities of the astronaut office, the aircraft operations
office, the flight crew integration division, the crew training and simulation
division, and the crew procedures division. Slayton was restored to full flight
status and certified eligible for manned space flights in March 1972, following
a comprehensive review of his medical status by NASA's Director of Life
Sciences and the Federal Aviation Agency.
Mr. Slayton made his first space flight as Apollo docking
module pilot of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission, July 15-24,
1975â€"a joint space flight culminating in the first historical meeting in space
between American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts. Completing the United States
flight crew for this 9-day earth-orbital mission were Thomas P. Stafford (Apollo
commander) and Vance D. Brand (Apollo command module Pilot). In the Soviet
spacecraft were cosmonauts Alexey Leonov (Soyuz commander) and Valeriy Kubasov
(Soyuz flight engineer). The crewmen of both nations participated in a
rendezvous and subsequent docking, with Apollo the active spacecraft. The event
marked the successful testing of a universal docking system and signaled a major
advance in efforts to pave the way for the conduct of joint experiments and/or
the exchange of mutual assistance in future international space explorations.
There were 44 hours of docked joint activities during ASTP, highlighted by four
crew transfers and the completion of a number of joint scientific experiments
and engineering investigations. All major ASTP objectives were accomplished and
included: testing a compatible rendezvous system in orbit; testing of
androgynous docking assemblies; verifying techniques for crew transfers; and
gaining experience in the conduct of joint international flights. Apollo
splashed down in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii and was quickly recovered by the
USS NEW ORLEANS. Slayton logged 217 hours and 28 minutes in his first space
From December 1975 through November 1977, Slayton served
as Manager for Approach and Landing Test Project. He directed the Space Shuttle
approach and landing test project through a series of critical orbiter flight
tests that allowed in-flight test and checkout of flight controls and orbiter
subsystems and permitted extensive evaluations of the orbiter's subsonic
flying qualities and performance characteristics.
He next served as Manager for Orbital Flight Test,
directing orbital flight mission preparations and conducting mission operations.
He was responsible for OFT operations scheduling, mission configuration control,
preflight stack configuration control, as well as conducting planning reviews,
mission readiness reviews, and postflight mission evaluations. He was also
responsible for the 747/orbiter ferry program.
Slayton retired from NASA in 1982. He was president of
Space Services Inc., of Houston, a company he founded to develop rockets for
small commercial payloads.
Slayton died on June 13, 1993, in League City, Texas, from
complications of a brain tumor.
Born: May 9, 1931 in Longmont, Colorado
Vance DeVoe Brand
PERSONAL DATA: Born in Longmont, Colorado, May
9, 1931. Married to the former Beverly Ann Whitnel. Two daughters and four sons.
Enjoys running to stay in condition, hiking, skiing, and camping.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Longmont High School,
Longmont, Colorado; received a bachelor of science degree in Business from the
University of Colorado in 1953, a bachelor of science degree in Aeronautical
Engineering from there in 1960, and a master's degree in Business Administration
from the UCLA in 1964.
ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow, American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics, Society of Experimental Test Pilots, and American
Astronautical Society. Registered Professional Engineer in Texas. Member, Sigma
SPECIAL HONORS: JSC Certificate of Commendation
(1970); NASA Distinguished Service Medals (1975 & 1992); NASA Exceptional
Service Medals (1974 & 1988); Zeta Beta Tau's Richard Gottheil Medal (1975);
Wright Brothers International Manned Space Flight Award (1975); VFW National
Space Award (1976 & 1984); Sigma Nu Distinguished Alumnus of the Year Award
(1976); Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI) Yuri Gagarin Gold Medal
(1976); University of Colorado Alumnus of the Century (1 of 12) (1976); AIAA
Special Presidential Citation (1977); American Astronautical Society's Flight
Achievement Award for 1976 (1977); AIAA Haley Astronautics Award (1978); JSC
Special Achievement Award (1978); Harmon Trophy (Astronaut) (1993); FAI De La
Vaulx Medal (1983); NASA Space Flight Medals (1983, 1984, 1992); Distinguished
Visiting Lecturer at University of Colorado (1984); De Molay Hall of Honor
(1989); FAI Komarov Awards (1983 & 1991); University of Colorado George
Norlin Award (1991); De Molay Legion of Honor (1993). International Space Hall
of Fame (1996), U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame (1997). Meritorious Executive, U.S.
Senior Executive Service (1997); Honorary Doctor of Science Degree from
University of Colorado (2000); International Aerospace Hall of Fame (2001);
Oklahoma Aviation and Space Hall of Fame (2005); Russian Republic Tsiolkovski
Award (2005) and ASE Crystal Helmet Award (2005).
EXPERIENCE: Military. Commissioned officer and naval aviator with
the U.S. Marine Corps from 1953 to 1957. Military assignments included a
15-month tour in Japan as a jet fighter pilot. Following release from active
duty, Brand continued in Marine Corps Reserve and Air National Guard jet fighter
squadrons until 1964.
Pre-NASA Civilian: Employed as a civilian by the
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation from 1960 to 1966, he worked initially as a flight
test engineer on the Navy's P3A aircraft. In 1963, Brand graduated from the U.S.
Naval Test Pilot School and was assigned to Palmdale, California as an
experimental test pilot on Canadian and German F-104 programs. Just prior to
selection to the astronaut program, Brand worked at the West German F-104G
Flight Test Center at Istres, France as an experimental test pilot and leader of
a Lockheed flight test advisory group.
Flight Experience: 9,669 flying hours, which includes
8,089 hours in jets, 391 hours in helicopters, 746 hours in spacecraft, and
checkout in more than 30 types of military aircraft.
NASA EXPERIENCE: One of the 19 pilot astronauts
selected by NASA in April 1966, Brand initially was a crew member in the thermal
vacuum chamber testing of the prototype Command Module and support crewman on
Apollo 8 and 13. Later he was backup command module pilot for Apollo 15 and
backup commander for Skylabs 3 and 4. As an astronaut he held management
positions relating to spacecraft development, acquisition, flight safety and
mission operations. Brand flew on four space missions; Apollo-Soyuz, STS-5, STS
41-B, and STS-35. He has logged 746 hours in space and has commanded three
Shuttle missions. Mr. Brand departed the Astronaut Office in 1992 to become
Chief of Plans at the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) Joint Program Office at
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. In September 1994, he moved to
California to become Assistant Chief of Flight Operations at the Dryden Flight
Research Center, then Acting Chief Engineer, Deputy Director for Aerospace
Projects and finally Acting Associate Center Director for Programs. Mr. Brand
retired from NASA in January 2008.
SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: Apollo Soyuz: Brand
was launched on his first space flight on July 15, 1975, as Apollo command
module pilot on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. This flight
resulted in the historic meeting in space between American astronauts and Soviet
cosmonauts. Other crewmen on this 9-day Earth-orbital mission were Thomas
Stafford, Apollo commander, Donald Slayton, Apollo docking module pilot,
cosmonaut Alexey Leonov, Soyuz commander; and cosmonaut Valeriy Kubasov, Soyuz
flight engineer. The Soyuz spacecraft was launched at Baikonur in Central Asia,
and the Apollo was launched 7 1/2 hours later at the Kennedy Space Center. Two
days later Apollo accomplished a successful rendezvous and docking with Soyuz.
The linkup tested a unique, new docking system and demonstrated international
cooperation in space. There were 44 hours of docked joint activities which
included 4 crew transfers between the Apollo and the Soyuz. Six records for
docked and group flight were set on the mission and are recognized by the
Federation Aeronautique Internationale. Apollo splashed down in the Pacific
Ocean near Hawaii, on July 25, and was promptly recovered by the USS New
Orleans. Mission duration was 2l7 hours.
STS-5: Brand was commander of Columbia for STS-5, the
first fully operational flight of the Shuttle Transportation System, which
launched on November 11, 1982. His crew comprised Colonel Robert Overmyer,
pilot, and two mission specialists, Dr. Joseph Allen and Dr. William Lenoir.
STS-5, the first mission with a four man crew, demonstrated the Shuttle as
operational by the successful first deployment of two commercial communications
satellites from the Orbiter's payload bay. The mission marked the Shuttle's
first use of an upper stage rocket, the Payload Assist Module (PAM-D). The
satellites were deployed for Satellite Business Systems Corporation of McLean,
Virginia, and TELESAT of Ottawa, Canada. Two FAI records for mass to altitude
were set on the mission. Numerous flight tests were performed to ascertain
Shuttle performance. STS-5 was the last flight to carry the Development Flight
Instrumentation package to support extensive flight testing. The STS-5 crew
concluded the 5-day orbital flight of Columbia with the landing approach through
a cloud deck to Runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base, California on November 16,
1982. Mission duration was 122 hours.
STS 41-B: Brand commanded Challenger with a crew of five
on the tenth flight of the Space Shuttle. The launch was on February 3, 1984.
His crew included Commander Robert Gibson, pilot, and 3 mission specialists,
Captain Bruce McCandless, II, Dr. Ronald McNair, and Lt. Col. Robert Stewart.
The flight accomplished the proper shuttle deployment of two Hughes 376
communications satellites which failed to reach desired geosynchronous orbits
due to upper stage solid rocket failures. This mission marked the first flight
checkout of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) and the Manipulator Foot Restraint
(MFR) with McCandless and Stewart performing two spectacular extravehicular
activities (EVA's). Shuttle rendezvous sensors and computer programs were flight
tested for the first time. The 8-day flight of Challenger ended with the first
landing to the runway at the Kennedy Space Center on February 11, 1984. Mission
duration was 191 hours.
STS-35: Brand again commanded Columbia on the
thirty-eighth flight of the Shuttle, this time with a crew of seven. The night
launch on December 2, 1990 started a 9-day mission devoted to round-the-clock
observations of stars and other celestial objects. Crewmen included the pilot,
Col. Guy Gardner; three mission specialists, Mike Lounge, Dr. Robert Parker and
Dr. Jeffrey Hoffman; and two payload specialists, Dr. Samuel Durrance and Dr.
Ronald Parise. The 13-ton payload consisted of the 3 ASTRO-1 Ultraviolet (UV)
Telescopes and the Broad Band X-ray Telescope. More than 200 Orbiter maneuvers
were required to point the telescopes. This Shuttle flight, the first dedicated
to astronomy, provided a rich return of science data with emphasis on
observation of very active celestial objects. A night landing was made on
December 10 to Runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base. Mission duration was 215