|GENERAL GHERMAN TITOV|
Born: September 11, 1935 in Altai Krai, Russian SFSR
Died: September 20, 2000 in Moscow, Russia
Gherman Stepanovich Titov (11 September 1935 – 20
September 2000) was a Soviet cosmonaut who, on 6 August 1961, became the second
human to orbit the Earth aboard Vostok 2, preceded by Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1.
Titov was the fourth man in space after Gagarin and Americans Alan Shepard and
Gus Grissom (the latter two made suborbital voyages).
flight finally proved that humans could live and work in space. He was the first
person to orbit the Earth multiple times (a total of 17), to spend more than a
day in space, to sleep in orbit and to suffer from space sickness. He was the
first to pilot a spaceship personally and he made the first manual photographs
from orbit, thus setting a record for modern space photography. A month short of
26 years old at launch, he remains the youngest person to fly in
In his subsequent life Titov continued to work for the
Soviet space program, playing a major role in Spiral project where he trained to
become the first pilot of an orbital spaceplane. However, after the death of
Yuri Gagarin in a military aircraft accident in 1968 the Soviet government
decided it couldn't afford to lose its second cosmonaut, and so Titov's career
as test pilot ended.
Titov served in the Soviet Air Force and become
General-Colonel, and in his final years in post-Soviet Russia he became a
2009 Cosmonaut (Other), 2005 Conquering Space: The Moon and Beyond (Other), 1998 Cold War (in person), 1961 Unser Sandmännchen (in person)
MAJOR GENERAL KONSTANTIN P. FEOKTISTOV
Born: February 7, 1926 in Voronezh, Soviet Union
Died: November 21, 2009 in Kemerovo Oblast, USSR
Konstantin Petrovich Feoktistov (7 February 1926 – 21 November 2009) was a
Soviet cosmonaut and an eminent space engineer. Feoktistov also wrote several
books on space technology and exploration. The Feoktistov crater on the Far Side
of the Moon is named in his honor.
In 1964, Feoktistov was selected as part of a group of engineers for
cosmonaut training, and in October of that very same year, he was hastily
assigned to the multi-disciplinary Voskhod 1 crew. He was the first civilian to
make a space flight, and the only cosmonaut in the Soviet Union who was not a
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. During his space flight, he
spent just over 24 hours and 17 minutes in space.
After the flight
of Voskhod 1, Feoktistov's training for any further space mission was
discontinued for medical reasons. However, Feoktistov continued his outer space
engineering work, and he later became the head of the Soviet space design bureau
that designed the Salyut and Mir space stations.
VITALY I. SEVASTYANOV
Born: July 8, 1935 in Krasnouralsk, Soviet Union
Died: April 5, 2010 in Moscow, Russia
Vitaly Ivanovich Sevastyanov (8 July 1935,
Krasnouralsk, USSR – 5 April 2010) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz
9 and Soyuz 18 missions.
He trained as an engineer at the Moscow
Aviation Institute and after graduation in 1959, joined Sergey Korolev's design
bureau, where he worked on the design of the Vostok spacecraft. He also lectured
at the Cosmonaut Training Centre, teaching the physics of spaceflight. In 1967
he commenced cosmonaut training himself. Between 15-24th September 1972 Vitaly
Sevastyanov visited Zagreb, Jugoslavia.
After two successful
missions, including a two-month stay on the Salyut 4 space station, he was
pulled from active flight status in 1976. He worked in ground control for the
Salyut 6 station before returning to spacecraft design in the 1980s to work on
the Buran project.
He was president of the Soviet Union Chess
Federation from 1977 to 1986 and from 1988 to 1989.
1980s he was the host of a popular television program on space exploration
entitled Man, Earth, Universe.
In 1993, he left the space programme
and was elected to the State Duma in 1994.
MAJOR GENERAL PAVEL POPOVICH
Born: October 5, 1930 in Uzyn, Kiev Oblast, United Kingdomrainian SSR, USSR
Died: September 29, 2009 in Gurzuf, Crimea, United Kingdomraine
Pavel Romanovich Popovich was the 4th cosmonaut in
space, the 6th person in orbit, and the 8th person in space.
He was born in Uzyn, Kiev Oblast of Soviet Union (now
Ukraine) to Roman Porfirievich Popovich (a fireman in a sugar factory) and
Theodosia Kasyanovna Semyonov. He had two sisters (one older, one younger) and
two brothers (both younger).
During World War II, the Germans
occupied Uzyn, and burned documents including Popovich's birth certificate.
After the war, these were restored through witness testimony, and although his
mother knew that he was born in 1929, two witnesses insisted that Popovich was
born in 1930, and so this became his official year of birth.
1947, he left vocational school in Bila Tserkva with qualifications as a
carpenter. In 1951, Popovich graduated as a construction engineer from a
technical school in Magnitogorsk, as well as receiving a pilot's
In 1954, he joined the Young Communist
He was married to Marina Popovich, a retired Soviet Air
Force colonel, engineer, and legendary Soviet test pilot who has been outspoken
about UFO reality. They had two daughters. They later divorced, and Popovich
married Alevtina Oshegova.
Popovich was also a keen weight
"Service in the Air Force made us strong, both physically and
morally. All of us cosmonauts took up sports and PT seriously when we served in
the Air Force. I know that Yuri Gagarin was fond of ice hockey. He liked to play
goal keeper. Gherman Titov was a gymnastics enthusiast, Andriyan Nikolayev liked
skiing, Pavel Popovich went in for weight lifting. I don't think I am wrong when
I say that sports became a fixture in the life of the cosmonauts."
also a member of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
After his retirement in 1993, he lived in
Popovich died in a hospital in Gurzuf where he had been
taken following a stroke on 29 September 2009. Brain hemorrhage was cited as the
cause of death. He is buried in Moscow.
2002 Out of the Blue (in person), 1997 Strange But True (in person), 1990 Yaoi Jun'ichi UFO shuzai tokuhô dai 3 dan (in person)
MAJOR GENERAL ANDRIAN NIKOLAYEV
Born: September 5, 1929 in Shorshely, Chuvashia, Russia
Died: July 3, 2004 in Cheboksary, Chuvashia, Russia
Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev (5 September 1929 – 3
July 2004) was a Soviet cosmonaut. He was an ethnic Chuvash.
Nikolayev flew on two space flights: Vostok 3
(effectively becoming the third Soviet cosmonaut) and Soyuz 9. His call sign in
these flights was Falcon. On both, he set new endurance records for the longest
time a human being had remained in orbit. He also served as backup for the
Vostok 2 and Soyuz 8 missions. On 22 January 1969, Nikolayev survived an
assassination attempt on Leonid Brezhnev, undertaken by a Soviet Army deserter,
Viktor Ilyin. He left the cosmonaut corps on 26 January
Nikolayev was also the first person to make a television
broadcast from space, in August 1962. Vostok 3 was part the first dual space
flight, with Pavel Popovich on Vostok 4.
In the early days of space
travel, it was usual to place trainee astronauts into isolation chambers to see
how long they could last alone. They sat in silence unable to gauge time. Many
men cracked. One cosmonaut, Andriyan Nikolayev lasted the longest - four days -
and became known as the Iron Man.
On 3 November 1963, he married
Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman to fly in space. They had one daughter,
Elena Andriyanovna (now a Doctor of Medicine), before their marriage collapsed.
However, it was not until 1982 that they divorced.
Nikolayev died of a heart attack in Cheboksary, the capital of Chuvashia in
LT. GENERAL VLADIMIR SHATALOV
Born: December 8, 1927 in Petropavlovsk, Kazakh SSR
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov (born December 8, 1927
in Petropavlovsk) is a former Soviet cosmonaut who flew three space missions of
the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 4, Soyuz 8, and Soyuz 10.
From 1971 to 1987 he was Commander of Cosmonaut Training,
and Director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre from then until
Quote: "When we look into the sky it seems to us to be
endless. We breathe without thinking about it, as is natural... and then you sit
aboard a spacecraft, you tear away from Earth, and within ten minutes you have
been carried straight through the layer of air, and beyond there is nothing! The
'boundless' blue sky, the ocean which gives us breath and protects us from
endless black and death, is but an infinitesimally thin film. How dangerous it
is to threaten even the smallest part of this gossamer covering, this conserver
1981 To the Stars by Hard Ways (Other)
COLONEL BORIS VOLYNOV
Born: December 18, 1934 in Irkutsk, Russian SFSR
Boris Valentinovich Volynov born December 18, 1934, is a Soviet cosmonaut who
flew two space missions of the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 5, and Soyuz 21. He was
the first halakhic (by mother) Jewish cosmonaut.
Volynov was assigned as one of two possible commanders training for Voskhod 1
in 1964, but he and his fellow crewmembers Georgi Katys and Boris Yegorov were
dumped three days before the scheduled launch date despite being the prime crew.
Having lost his chance to fly on the first Voskhod mission, Volynov spent a
year training for Voskhod 3. He first trained with Georgi Katys, but Katys was
dropped from active status when the KGB discovered his father had been executed
in one of Stalin's purges. He was then teamed up with Viktor Gorbatko and then
Georgi Shonin, but following the death of Sergey Korolyov on 14 January 1966,
the Voskhod 3 flight was cancelled just 10 days before launch. Korolyov's
successor, Vasily Mishin, cancelled the mission as he was intent on
concentrating on Soyuz instead. Volynov was subsequently transferred to the
Soyuz group and later assigned as a backup for Soyuz 3.
Soyuz 5 was launched on 15 January 1969, crewed by Volynov, Aleksei
Yeliseyev, and Yevgeni Khrunov. On 16 January Yeliseyev and Khrunov transferred
to Soyuz 4, crewed by Commander Vladimir Shatalov, following an orbital
rendezvous and docking. Soyuz 4 undocked from Soyuz 5 the following day and
Volynov prepared for a solo re-entry.
Soyuz 5's equipment module
failed to separate properly following retrofire due to the misfiring of
explosive bolts, and consequently blocked the re-entry heat shield on the base
of the descent module. As a result of the added mass of the equipment module,
Volynov lost control of Soyuz 5 which began to tumble, finally stabilizing
itself with the thinnest part of the spacecraft facing forward. As the assembly
entered the atmosphere, the stress and heat on the supporting struts between the
modules finally made them burn through and part, allowing the equipment module
to fall away and burn up on re-entry. Volynov could only wait while the descent
module's automatic orientation system tried to regain control, which fortunately
it managed to do with the heat shield facing forward.
On 6 July 1976 Volynov and Flight Engineer Vitaliy Zholobov were launched on
board Soyuz 21 to spend 18 days aboard the space station Salyut 5. Following a
deterioration in the health of Zholobov, who was making his first spaceflight,
the decision was made to return the crew at the earliest available opportunity
and they boarded their Soyuz on 24 August. However, as Volynov tried to undock
from Salyut, the latch failed to release properly. As he fired the jets to move
the spacecraft away, the docking mechanism jammed, resulting in the Soyuz being
undocked but still linked to Salyut. As the two spacecraft moved out of range of
ground communications, only the first set of emergency procedures was received.
Volynov tried a second time to undock but managed only to slightly loosen the
latches. This situation persisted for an entire orbit (90 minutes), then the
final set of emergency procedures were received and the latches finally
Because Soyuz 21 was returning early, it was outside
the normal recovery window, and encountered strong winds as it descended, which
caused uneven firing of the retrorockets. It made a hard landing around midnight
200 km southwest of Kokchetav, Kazakhstan. Zholobov's illness was apparently
caused by nitric acid fumes leaking from the Salyut's propellant tanks. However,
other reports indicate that the crew failed to properly follow their physical
exercise program and suffered from lack of sleep
COLONEL YEVGENI V. KHRUNOV
Born: September 10, 1933 in Tula Oblast, USSR
Died: May 5, 2000 in Moscow, Russia
Yevgeni Vassilyevich Khrunov (September 10, 1933 – May
19, 2000) He was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 5/Soyuz 4
Yevgeni Khrunov was a colonel, Hero
of the Soviet Union (January 22, 1969) and Kandidat of Technical Sciences
COLONEL ANATOLIY BEREZOVOY
Born: April 11, 1942 in Enem, RSFSR, USSR
Berezovoy was born on April 11, 1942 in Enem, Adyghe
Autonomous Oblast, Russian SFSR in a Ukrainian family. He is married with two
children. He graduated from the Air Force Academy
He was selected
as a cosmonaut on April 27, 1970. He flew as Commander on Soyuz T-5. He retired
on October 31, 1992 due to medical reasons after injuries he got as a victim of
an armed robbery. From 1992 to 1999, he was a Deputy President Russian Space
VALERI N. KUBASOV
Born: January 7, 1935 in Vyazniki, Vladimir Oblast, USSR
Died: February 19, 2014 in Moscow, Russia
Valeri Nikolayevich Kubasov (born 7 January 1935 in
Vyazniki) is a former Soviet cosmonaut who flew on two missions in the Soyuz
programme as a flight engineer: Soyuz 6 and Soyuz 19 (the Apollo-Soyuz mission),
and commanded Soyuz 36 in the Intercosmos programme. On 21 July 1975, the Soyuz
7K-TM module used for ASTP landed in Kazakhstan at 5:51 p.m. and Kubasov was the
first to exit the craft.
He was also involved in the development of
the Mir space station. He retired from the Soviet space program in March 1993.
He was later deputy director of RKK Energia.
Kubasov seems to have
cheated death twice during his space career. He was part of the crew that was
originally intended to fly Soyuz 2, which was found to have the same faulty
parachute sensor that resulted in Vladimir Komarov's death on Soyuz 1 and was
later launched without a crew. Later, he was grounded for medical reasons before
the Soyuz 11 flight, which killed the crew when the capsule was accidentally
depressurised by a faulty valve.
1998 Cold War (in person), 1980 Target... Earth (Other)
MAJOR GENERAL VALERI BYKOVSKY
Born: August 2, 1934 in Pavlovsky Posad, Soviet Union
Valery Fyodorovich Bykovsky was born 2 August 1934, Pavlovsky Posad. He is a
retired Soviet cosmonaut who flew three manned space mission space flights:
Vostok 5, Soyuz 22, and Soyuz 31. He was also backup for Vostok 3 and Soyuz
Bykovsky set a space endurance record when he spent five days in orbit aboard
Vostok 5 in 1963. Although this flight duration has long since been surpassed by
crews of more than one person, to this day it remains the endurance record for a
Bykovsky was to have commanded the original Soyuz
2 mission, which was cancelled due to problems with Soyuz 1. After the
parachutes failed on that mission, killing Vladimir Komarov, the same problem
was found with the Soyuz 2 capsule, which meant if the mission had flown,
Bykovsky and his crew would also have been killed.
Many of his
later years in the space programme were involved with promoting the Intercosmos
programme amongst the world's Socialist nations. He retired in 1988 and then
spent three years as the Director of the House of Soviet Science and Culture in
MAJOR GENERAL ALEXEI LEONOV
Born: May 30, 1934 in Kemerovo Oblast, USSR
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov was born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, Kemerovo
Oblast, Soviet Union, is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut and Air Force Major
General who, on 18 March 1965, became the first human to conduct an
extra-vehicular activity (EVA), also known as a space walk.
Leonov was one of the 20 Soviet Air Force pilots selected to be part of the
first cosmonaut group in 1960. Like all the Soviet cosmonauts Leonov was a
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. His walk in space was
originally to have taken place on the Vostok 11 mission, but this was cancelled,
and the historic event happened on the Voskhod 2 flight instead. He was outside
the spacecraft for 12 minutes and nine seconds on 18 March 1965, connected to
the craft by a 5.35-meter tether. At the end of the spacewalk, Leonov's
spacesuit had inflated in the vacuum of space to the point where he could not
re-enter the airlock. He opened a valve to allow some of the suit's pressure to
bleed off, and was barely able to get back inside the capsule. Leonov had spent
some eighteen months undergoing intensive weightlessness training for the
LT. GENERAL GEORGI S. SHONIN
Born: August 3, 1935 in Rovenky, Soviet Union
Died: April 7, 1997
Georgy Stepanovich Shonin (August 3, 1935 – April 7,
1997) born in Rovenky, Luhansk Oblast, (now Ukraine) but grew up in Balta of
Ukrainian SSR) was a Soviet cosmonaut, who flew on the Soyuz 6 space
Shonin was part of the original group of cosmonauts
selected in 1960. He left the space programme in 1979 for medical
He later worked as the director of the 30th Central
Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Defence (Russia).
died of a heart attack in 1997.
He was awarded:
the Soviet Union
Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR
Order of the October Revolution
Order of the Red Banner
Order of the Red Star
Medal "25 Years of People's Power" (Bulgaria)
medals from the Mongolian People's Republic
Five medals from the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
MAJOR GENERAL ANATOLIY V. FILIPCHENKO
Born: February 26, 1928 in Davydovka, Voronezh Oblast, RSFSR
Anatoly Vasilyevich Filipchenko was born February 26,
1928 in Davydovka, Voronezh Oblast, RSFSR. He was a Soviet cosmonaut of
Ukrainian descent. He flew on the Soyuz 7 and Soyuz 16
After leaving the space programme in 1982 Filipchenko
became the Deputy Director of the OKB in Kharkiv.
Hero of the Soviet Union
Pilot-Cosmonaut of the
Order of Lenin
Order of the Red Banner of
Medal "For Merit in Space Exploration"
State Prize of
Order of the Banner of the Bulgarian People's
Medal "For the Strengthening Military Cooperation"
Medal "Brotherhood in
Born: July 13, 1934 in Zhizdra, Russia
Aleksei Stanislavovich Yeliseyev born July 13, 1934 in Zhizdra, is a retired
Soviet cosmonaut who flew on three missions in the Soyuz programme as a flight
engineer: Soyuz 5, Soyuz 8, and Soyuz 10.
A graduate of the Bauman
Higher Technical School (1957) and postgraduate of Moscow Institute of Physics
and Technology (1962). Yeliseyev worked as an engineer in Sergey Korolev's
design bureau before being selected for cosmonaut
Following his retirement from the space programme in
1985, he took up at an administrative position at the Bauman school for several
years before retiring fully.
MAJOR GENERAL VIKTOR V. GORBATKO
Born: December 3, 1934 in Ventsy-Zarya, Krasnodar Krai, USSR
Viktor Vasilyevich Gorbatko was born December 3, 1934
in Ventsy-Zarya. He was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 7, Soyuz 24,
and Soyuz 37 missions.
After leaving the space program in 1982 he taught at the Air
Force Engineering Academy in Moscow.
MAJOR GENERAL VALENTINA TERESHKOVA
Born: March 6, 1937 in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russian SFSR
Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova was born 6 March
1937, is a retired Soviet cosmonaut and the first woman to have flown in space,
having been selected from more than four hundred applicants and five finalists
to pilot Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963. In order to join the Cosmonaut Corps,
Tereshkova was only honorarily inducted into the Soviet Air Force and thus she
also became the first civilian to fly in space. During her three-day mission,
she performed various tests on herself to collect data on the female body's
reaction to spaceflight.
Before being recruited as a cosmonaut,
Tereshkova was a textile factory assembly worker and an amateur parachutist.
After the dissolution of the first group of female cosmonauts in 1969, she
became a prominent member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, holding
various political offices. She remained politically active following the
collapse of the Soviet Union and is still revered as a heroine in post-Soviet
2011 Love, Hate & Propaganda: The Cold War (Other), 2009 Cosmonaut (Other), 1998 Cold War (Other), 1991 Far from St. Petersburg (Editing), 1991 Far from St. Petersburg (in person), 1973 Wer die Erde liebt (in person), 1972 Valentina Tereshkova (in person), 1963 Geliebt von Millionen (in person)