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JOHN B. CONNALLY JR. - PROGRAM SIGNED CIRCA 1969 CO-SIGNED BY: WILLIAM B. LENOIR, CAPTAIN GENE CERNAN, COLONEL GORDON COOPER JR., CAPTAIN ROBERT "BOB" CRIPPEN, CAPTAIN ALAN L. BEAN, COLONEL JAMES B. "JIM" IRWIN, REAR ADMIRAL ALAN B. SHEPARD JR., VICE ADMIRAL RICHARD H. TRULY, COLONEL C. GORDON FULLERTON - DOCUMENT 217388

 
ASTRONAUTS and THE GOVERNOR OF TEXAS
One past and three future Moonwalkers among those commemorating "The U.S. Astronauts Forest in the Holy Land".
Program/Menu signed: "Alan Shepard", "Jim Irwin", "Gene Cernan", "Alan L. Bean", "Gordon Cooper", "Bob Crippen", "Dick Truly", "Gordon Fullerton", "William B. Lenoir" and "John Connally", 8p, 9½x13½. Signed on the color cover, which depicts an 18th century attempt at flying, 6¾x7¼. "The State of Texas Salutes The Astronauts", Shamrock Hilton Hotel, Houston, Texas, December 14, 1969. On page 6: "The Salute to the Astronauts is sponsored by The Jewish National Fund of America. In association with The State of Texas B'nai B'rith, through the generosity of the citizens of the State of Texas, a forest will be planted by the Jewish National Fund, to be known as 'The U.S. Astronauts Forest in the Holy Land.'" Former Texas Governor JOHN CONNALY, wounded by Lee Harvey Oswald in the JFK assassination six years earlier, was the Dinner Chairman. BEAN had walked on the Moon just 25 days earlier (Apollo 12). Original Mercury astronaut SHEPARD (1923-1998), IRWIN (1930-1991) and CERNAN later walked on the Moon. COOPER (1927-2004), another original Mercury astronaut, flew on Mercury and Gemini missions. CRIPPEN, TRULY and FULLERTON (1936-2013) would be aboard the first three Space Shuttle missions respectively, 13 years later. LENOIR was on the fifth Space Shuttle mission. Lightly creased and soiled. Slightly worn edges.


For more documents by these signers click the names below:

JOHN B. CONNALLY JR.   CAPTAIN ALAN L. BEAN   COLONEL JAMES B. IRWIN   REAR ADMIRAL ALAN B. SHEPARD JR.   VICE ADMIRAL RICHARD H. TRULY   COLONEL C. GORDON FULLERTON   WILLIAM B. LENOIR   CAPTAIN GENE CERNAN   COLONEL GORDON COOPER JR.   CAPTAIN ROBERT CRIPPEN  


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JOHN B. CONNALLY JR.
Born: February 27, 1917 in Floresville, Texas
Died: June 15, 1993 in Houston, Texas





CAPTAIN ALAN L. BEAN
Born: March 15, 1932 in Wheeler, Texas

Alan Bean (Captain, U.S. Navy, Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Wheeler, Texas, on March 15, 1932. Married. Two grown children, a son and a daughter.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Paschal High School in Fort Worth, Texas; received a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering from the University of Texas in 1955; awarded an honorary doctorate of science from Texas Wesleyan College in 1972; presented an honorary doctorate of engineering science degree from the University of Akron (Ohio) in 1974.

ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow of the American Astronautical Society; member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots.

SPECIAL HONORS: Helped establish 11 world records in space and astronautics; awarded two NASA distinguished Service Medals, the Navy Astronaut Wings and two Navy Distinguished Service Medals; recipient of the Rear Admiral William S. Parsons Award for Scientific and Technical Progress, the University of Texas Distinguished Alumnus Award and Distinguished Engineering Graduate Award, the Godfrey L. Cabot Award, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Trustees Award, the Texas Press Associations Man of the Year Award for 1969, the City of Chicago Gold Medal, the Robert J. Collier Trophy for 1973, the Federation Aeronautique Internationales Yuri Gagarin Gold Medal for 1973 and the V.M. Komarov Diploma for 1973 (1974), the Dr. Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy for 1975 (1975), the AIAA Octave Chanute Award for 1975 (1975), the AAS Flight Achievement Award for 1974 (1975).

EXPERIENCE: Alan Bean, a Navy ROTC Student at Texas, was commissioned upon graduation in 1955. After completing flight training, he was assigned to a jet attack squadron in Jacksonville, Florida. After a four-year tour of duty, he attended the Navy Test Pilot School, then flew as a test pilot on several types of naval aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Alan Bean was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963. He served as backup astronaut for the Gemini 10 and Apollo 9 missions.

Captain Bean was lunar module pilot on Apollo 12, mans second lunar landing. In November 1969, Captain Bean and Captain Pete Conrad landed in the moons Ocean of Stormsafter a flight of some 250,000 miles. They explored the lunar surface, deployed several lunar surface experiments, and installed the first nuclear power generator station on the moon to provide the power source. Captain Richard Gordon remained in lunar orbit photographing landing sites for future missions.

Captain Bean was spacecraft commander of Skylab Mission II (SL-3), July 29 to September 25, 1973. With him on the 59-day, 24,400,000 mile world record setting flight were scientist-astronaut Dr. Owen K. Garriott and Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Jack R. Lousma. Mission II accomplished 150% of its pre-mission forecast goals.

On his next assignment, Captain Bean was backup spacecraft commander of the United States flight crew for the joint American-Russian Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.

Captain Bean has logged 1,671 hours and 45 minutes in spaceof which 10 hours and 26 minutes were spent in EVAs on the moon and in earth orbit. Captain Bean has flown 27 types of military aircraft as well as many civilian airplanes. He has logged more than 7,145 hours flying timeincluding 4,890 hours in jet aircraft. Captain Bean retired from the Navy in October 1975 but continued as head of the Astronaut Candidate Operations and Training Group within the Astronaut Office in a civilian capacity.

Bean resigned from NASA in June 1981 to devote his full time to painting. He said his decision was based on the fact that, in his 18 years as an astronaut, he was fortunate enough to visit worlds and see sights no artists eye, past or present, has ever viewed firsthand and he hopes to express these experiences through the medium of art. He is pursuing this dream at his home and studio in Houston.



Film Credits
2014 The Last Man on the Moon (in person), 2012 Lunarcy! (in person), 2010 The Colbert Report (in person), 2010 Moonbug (in person), 2009 The Apollo Years (in person), 2009 James May on the Moon (in person), 2009 Apollo Zero (in person), 2008 When We Left Earth: The NASA Missions (in person), 2007 The Wonder of It All (in person), 2007 The Wonder of It All (Other), 2007 The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson (in person), 2007 Secrets of the Moon Landings (in person), 2007 In the Shadow of the Moon (in person), 2006 Carrier (Performer), 2003 Failure Is Not an Option (in person), 2002 Rocket Science (in person), 2002 Alan Bean: Artist, Explorer, Moonwalker (in person), 2002 Alan Bean: Artist, Explorer, Moonwalker (Writer), 2000 What Happened on the Moon - An Investigation Into Apollo (Other), 2000 Rocket's Red Glare (in person), 1997 Was It Only a Paper Moon (Other), 1996 The Adventures of Mary-Kate & Ashley: The Case of the U.S. Space (in person), 1994 CBS This Morning (in person), 1990 The Other Side of the Moon (in person), 1989 For All Mankind (in person)


COLONEL JAMES B. IRWIN
Born: March 17, 1930 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Died: August 8, 1991 in Colorado Springs, Colorado


James Irwin (Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Deceased)

PERSONAL DATA: Born March 17, 1930, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Died August 8, 1991 of a heart attack. He is survived by his wife Mary Ellen and their five children.

EDUCATION: Graduated from East High School, Salt Lake City, Utah. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Naval Science from the United States Naval Academy in 1951 and Master of Science degrees in Aeronautical Engineering and Instrumentation Engineering from the University of Michigan in 1957. Awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Astronautical Science from the University of Michigan in 1971, an Honorary Doctorate of Science from William Jewell College in 1971, and an Honorary Doctorate from Samford University in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1972.

ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Air Force Association and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots.

SPECIAL HONORS: Recipient of the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal and Command Pilot Astronaut Wings, two Air Force Commendation Medals for service with the Air Force Systems Command and the Air Defense Command, and an Outstanding Unit Citation while a member of the 4750th Training Wing; also awarded the City of New York Gold Medal (1971), the United Nations Peace Medal in 1971, the City of Chicago Gold Medal (1971), the Air Force Association's David C. Schilling Trophy (1971), the 1971 Kitty Hawk Memorial Award, the AIAA Haley Astronautics Award for 1972, the Arnold Air Society's 1972 John F. Kennedy Trophy, the Robert J. Collier Trophy for 1971, Belgium's Order of Leopold (1971), and the New York Police Department St. George Association's Golden Rule Award in 1972, the christian Service Award, and the Milan Hulbert Trophy of SWAP International (1973).

EXPERIENCE: Irwin, an Air Force Colonel, was commissioned in the Air Force upon graduation from the Naval Academy in 1951. He received his flight training at Hondo Air Base and Reese Air Force Base, Texas.

Prior to reporting for duty at the Manned Spacecraft Center, he was assigned as Chief of the Advanced Requirements Branch at Headquarters Air Defense Command. He was graduated from the Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School in 1963 and from the Air Force Experimental Test Pilot School in 1961.

He also served with the F-12 Test Force at Edwards Air Force Base, California, and with the AIM 47 Project Office at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

During his military career, he accumulated more than 7,015 hours flying time, 5,300 hours in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Colonel Irwin was one of the 19 astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966. He was crew commander of lunar module (LTA-8)-this vehicle finished the first series of thermal vacuum tests on June 1, 1968. He also served as a member of the astronaut support crew for Apollo 10 and as backup lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 flight.

Irwin served as lunar module pilot for Apollo, July 26 to August 7, 1971. His companions on the flight were David R. Scott, spacecraft commander and Alfred M. Worden, command module pilot. Apollo 15 was the fourth manned lunar landing mission and the first to visit and explore the moon's Hadley Rille and Apennine Mountains which are located on the southeast edge of the Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains). The lunar module, "Falcon", remained on the lunar surface for 66 hours, 54 minutes-setting a new record for lunar surface stay time-and Scott and Irwin logged 18 hours and 35 minutes each in extravehicular activities conducted during three separate excursions onto the lunar surface. Using "Rover-l" to transport themselves and their equipment along portions of Hadley Rille and the Apinnine Mountains, Scott and Irwin performed a selenological inspection and survey of the area and collected approximately 180 pounds of lunar surface materials. They deployed an ALSEP package which involved the emplacement and activation of surface experiments, and their lunar surface activities were televised in color using a TV camera which was operated remotely by ground controllers stationed in the mission control center located at Houston, Texas. Other Apollo 15 achievements included: largest payloads ever placed in earth and lunar orbits; first scientific instrument module bay flown and operated on an Apollo spacecraft; longest distance traversed on lunar surface; first use of a lunar surface navigation device, mounted on Rover 1; first subsatellite launched in lunar orbit; and first extravehicular activity (EVA) from a command module during transearth coast. The latter feat was accomplished by Worden during three excursions to "Endeavour's" SIM bay where he retrieved film cassettes from the panoramic and mapping cameras and reported his personal observations of the general condition of equipment housed there.

Apollo 15 concluded with a Pacific splashdown and subsequent recovery by the USS OKINAWA.

In completing his first flight, Irwin logged 295 hours and 11 minutes in space - 19 hours and 46 minutes of which were in EVA.

Colonel Irwin resigned from NASA and the Air Force in July 1972, to form a religious organization, High Flight Foundation, in Colorado Springs, Colorado. He is Chairman of the Board.




REAR ADMIRAL ALAN B. SHEPARD JR.
Born: November 18, 1923 in East Derry, New Hampshire
Died: July 21, 1998 in Pebble Beach, California


Alan B. Shepard, Jr. (Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy, Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Deceased)

PERSONAL DATA: Born November 18, 1923, in East Derry, New Hampshire. Died on July 21, 1998. His wife, Louise, died on August 25, 1998. They are survived by daughters Julie, Laura and Alice, and six grandchildren.

EDUCATION: Attended primary and secondary schools in East Derry and Derry, New Hampshire; received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1944, an Honorary Master of Arts degree from Dartmouth College in 1962, and Honorary Doctorate of Science from Miami University (Oxford, Ohio) in 1971, and an Honorary Doctorate of Humanities from Franklin Pierce College in 1972. Graduated Naval Test Pilot School in 1951; Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island in 1957.

ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow of the American Astronautical Society and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots; member of the Rotary, the Kiwanis, the Mayflower Society, the Order of the Cincinnati, and the American Fighter Aces; honorary member, Board of Directors for the Houston School for Deaf Children, Director, National Space Institute, and Director, Los Angeles Ear Research Institute.

SPECIAL HONORS: Congressional Medal of Honor (Space); Awarded two NASA Distinguished Service Medals, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the Navy Astronaut Wings, the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, and the Navy Distinguished Flying Cross; recipient of the Langley Medal (highest award of the Smithsonian Institution) on May 5, 1964, the Lambert Trophy, the Kinchloe Trophy, the Cabot Award, the Collier Trophy, the City of New York Gold Medal (1971), Achievement Award for 1971. Shepard was appointed by the President in July 1971 as a delegate to the 26th United Nations General Assembly and served through the entire assembly which lasted from September to December 1971.

EXPERIENCE: Shepard began his naval career, after graduation from Annapolis, on the destroyer COGSWELL, deployed in the pacific during World War II. He subsequently entered flight training at Corpus Christi, Texas, and Pensacola, Florida, and received his wings in 1947. His next assignment was with Fighter Squadron 42 at Norfolk, Virginia, and Jacksonville, Florida. He served several tours aboard aircraft carriers in the Mediterranean while with this squadron.

In 1950, he attended the United States Navy Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Maryland. After graduation, he participated in flight test work which included high- altitude tests to obtain data on light at different altitudes and on a variety of air masses over the American continent; and test and development experiments of the Navy's in-flight refueling system, carrier suitability trails of the F2H3 Banshee, and Navy trials of the first angled carrier deck. He was subsequently assigned to Fighter Squadron 193 at Moffett Field, California, a night fighter unit flying Banshee jets. As operations officer of this squadron, he made two tours to the Western pacific onboard the carrier ORISKANY.

He returned to Patuxent for a second tour of duty and engaged in flight testing the F3H Demon, F8U Crusader, F4D Skyray, and F11F Tigercat. He was also project test pilot on the F5D Skylancer, and his last five months at Patuxent were spent as an instructor in the Test Pilot School. He later attended the Naval War College at Newport, Rhode Island, and upon graduating in 1957 was subsequently assigned to the staff of the Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet, as aircraft readiness officer.

He has logged more than 8,000 hours flying time--3,700 hours in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Rear Admiral Shepard was one of the Mercury astronauts named by NASA in April 1959, and he holds the distinction of being the first American to journey into space. On May 5, 1961, in the Freedom 7 spacecraft, he was launched by a Redstone vehicle on a ballistic trajectory suborbital flight--a flight which carried him to an altitude of 116 statute miles and to a landing point 302 statute miles down the Atlantic Missile Range.

In 1963, he was designated Chief of the Astronaut Office with responsibility for monitoring the coordination, scheduling, and control of all activities involving NASA astronauts. This included monitoring the development and implementation of effective training programs to assure the flight readiness of available pilot/non-pilot personnel for assignment to crew positions on manned space flights; furnishing pilot evaluations applicable to the design, construction, and operations of spacecraft systems and related equipment; and providing qualitative scientific and engineering observations to facilitate overall mission planning, formulation of feasible operational procedures, and selection and conduct of specific experiments for each flight. He was restored to full flight status in May 1969, following corrective surgery for an inner ear disorder.

Shepard made his second space flight as spacecraft commander on Apollo 14, January 31 - February 9, 1971. He was accompanied on man's third lunar landing mission by Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot. Maneuvering their lunar module, "Antares," to a landing in the hilly upland Fra Mauro region of the moon, Shepard and Mitchell subsequently deployed and activated various scientific equipment and experiments and collected almost 100 pounds of lunar samples for return to earth. Other Apollo 14 achievements included: first use of Mobile Equipment Transporter (MET); largest payload placed in lunar orbit; longest distance traversed on the lunar surface; largest payload returned from the lunar surface; longest lunar surface stay time (33 hours); longest lunar surface EVA (9 hours and 17 minutes); first use of shortened lunar orbit rendezvous techniques; first use of colored TV with new vidicon tube on lunar surface; and first extensive orbital science period conducted during CSM solo operations.

Rear Admiral Shepard has logged a total of 216 hours and 57 minutes in space, of which 9 hours and 17 minutes were spent in lunar surface EVA.

He resumed his duties as Chief of the Astronaut Office in June 1971 and served in this capacity until he retired from NASA and the Navy on August 1, 1974.

Shepard was in private business in Houston, Texas. He served as the President of the Mercury Seven Foundation, a non-profit organization which provides college science scholarships for deserving students.




VICE ADMIRAL RICHARD H. TRULY
Born: November 12, 1937 in Fayette, Mississippi

RICHARD H. TRULY (Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy, Retired)
NASA ASTRONAUT (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Fayette, Mississippi, on November 12, 1937. Married. Three children.

EDUCATION: Attended schools in Fayette and Meridian, Mississippi; received a bachelor of aeronautical engineering degree from Georgia Institute of Technology in 1959.

SPECIAL HONORS: Decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal, two Legion of Merit, Navy Distinguished Flying Cross, and the Meritorious Service Award. His NASA awards include the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, two NASA Space Flight Medals, and two NASA Exceptional Service Medals. He is also the recipient of the Air Force Association's David C. Shilling Award (1978), Society of Experimental Test Pilot's Ivan C. Kincheloe Award (1978), the American Astronautical Society's Flight Achievement Award (1977), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Haley Space Flight Award (1980), the Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy (1982), the Thomas D. White Space Trophy (1982), the Robert J. Collier Trophy (1982), the Harmon International Trophy (1982), the Federation Aeronautique Internationale Gold Space Medal (1984), the Boy Scouts of America Distinguished Eagle Scout Award , and the Medal of Honor of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution.

EXPERIENCE: Truly was ordered to flight school and was designated a Naval Aviator on October 7, 1960. His initial tour of duty was in Fighter Squadron 33 where he flew F-8 Crusaders aboard USS Intrepid (CVA-11) and USS Enterprise (CVN-65) and made more than 300 carrier landings. From 1963 to 1965, he was first a student and later an instructor at the U.S. Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California. In 1965, he was among the first military astronauts selected to the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory program in Los Angeles, California. He became an astronaut for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in August 1969. He was a member of the Astronaut support crew and capsule communicator for all three of the manned Skylab missions (1973) and the Apollo-Soyuz mission (1975). Truly was pilot for one of the two-man crews that flew the 747/Space Shuttle Enterprise approach and landing test flights during 1977. He was then assigned as a backup pilot for STS-1, the first orbital flight test of the Shuttle. His first flight into space (STS-2, November 12-14, 1981) was as pilot of the Space Shuttle Columbia, significant at the first manned spacecraft to be reflown in space. His second flight (STS-8, August 30 to September 5, 1983) was as commander of the Space Shuttle Challenger, which was the first night launch and landing in the Shuttle program. As a Naval Aviator and test pilot, Truly has over 7,000 hours in numerous military jet aircraft.

Truly left NASA in 1983 to become the first commander of the Naval Space Command, Dahlgren, Virginia. He served as NASA Administrator from 1989-1992.




COLONEL C. GORDON FULLERTON
Born: October 11, 1936 in Rochester, New York

C. GORDON FULLERTON
NASA ASTRONAUT (Former)

In December 2007 C. Gordon Fullerton retired from NASA and his post of Associate Director of Flight Operations at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. His assignments included a variety of flight research and support activities piloting the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) and other multi-engine and high performance aircraft.

Fullerton, who logged 382 hours in space flight, was a NASA astronaut from September 1969 until November 1986 when he joined the Flight Crew Branch at Dryden. In July 1988, he completed a 30-year career with the U.S. Air Force and retired in the rank of colonel.

As the project pilot on the NASA B-52 launch aircraft, Fullerton flew during the first six air launches of the commercially developed Pegasus space vehicle. He was involved in a series of development air launches of the X-38 Crew Recovery Vehicle and in the Pegasus launches for the X-43A Hyper-X advanced propulsion project.

Fullerton had been involved in numerous other research programs at Dryden. He was the project pilot on the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft program, during which he successfully landed both a modified F-15 and an MD-11 transport with all control surfaces neutralized, using only engine thrust modulation for control.

Fullerton also flew Drydens DC-8 Airborne Science aircraft, regularly deployed worldwide to support a variety of research studies, including atmospheric physics, ground mapping and meteorology.

Assigned to evaluate the flying qualities of the Russian Tu-144 supersonic transport during two flights in 1998, he reached a speed of Mach 2 and became one of only two non-Russian pilots to fly that aircraft.

He led a project that utilized a Convair 990 modified to test space shuttle landing gear components during many very high-speed landings.

Other projects for which he had flown in the past included the C-140 JetStar Laminar Flow Control; F-111 Mission Adaptive Wing; F-14 Variable Sweep Flow Transition; Space Shuttle drag chute and F-111 crew module parachute tests with the B-52; X-29 vortex flow control; and the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft.

With more than 16,000 hours of flying time, Fullerton piloted 135 different types of aircraft, including full qualification in the T-33, T-34, T-37, T-38, T-39, F-86, F-101, F-104, F-106, F-111, F-14, F-15, F/A-18, X-29, KC-135, C-140, B-47, most recently flying the T-38, B-52, B-747, G-1159, and T-34C.

Fullerton graduated from U.S. Grant High School, Portland, Oregon. He earned Bachelor of Science and Master of Science in mechanical engineering from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California., in 1957 and l958, respectively.

Fullerton entered the U. S. Air Force in July 1958 after working as a mechanical design engineer in the Flight Test Department of Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, California.

After flight school, he was trained as an F-86 interceptor pilot, and later became a B-47 bomber pilot at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Tucson, Arizona. In 1964 he was selected to attend the Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School (now the Air Force Test Pilot School), Edwards Air Force Base, California. Upon graduation he was assigned as a test pilot with the Bomber Operations Division at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. Fullerton served as a flight crewmember for the Air Force Manned Orbiting Laboratory program from 1966 through 1969.

After assignment as an astronaut to the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Fullerton served on the support crews for the Apollo 14, 15, 16, and 17 lunar missions. In 1977, Fullerton was assigned to one of the two flight crews that piloted the Space Shuttle prototype Enterprise during the Approach and Landing Test Program at Dryden.

Fullerton was the pilot on the eight-day STS-3 Space Shuttle orbital flight test mission March 22-30, 1982. The mission exposed the orbiter Columbia to extremes in thermal stress and tested the 50-foot Remote Manipulator System used to grapple and maneuver payloads in orbit. STS-3 landed at White Sands, New Mexico, because Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards was wet due to heavy seasonal rains.

Fullerton was commander of the STS-51F Spacelab 2 mission, launched on July 29, 1985. This mission, with the orbiter Challenger, was the first pallet-only Spacelab mission and the first to operate the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS). It carried 13 major experiments in the fields of astronomy, solar physics, ionospheric science, life science, and materiel science (a super fluid helium experiment). T he mission ended August 6, 1985, with a landing at Dryden.

Among the special awards and honors Fullerton has received are the Iven C. Kincheloe Award from the Society of Experimental Test Pilots in 1978; Department of Defense Distinguished Service and Superior Service Medals; Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross; NASA Distinguished and Exceptional Service Medals; NASA Space Flight Medals in 1983 and 1985; General Thomas D. White Space Trophy; Haley Space Flight Award from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; American Astronautical Society Flight Achievement Awards for 1977, 1981 and 1985; the Certificate of Achievement Award from the Soaring Society of America; and the Ray E. Tenhoff Award from the Society of Experimental Test Pilots in 1992 and 1993.

Fullerton was inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame in 2005, and the International Space Hall of Fame in 1982. He is a Fellow of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots; member of Tau Beta Pi, an engineering honorary fraternity; honorary member of the National World War II Glider Pilot Association; and a Fellow of the American Astronautical Society.




WILLIAM B. LENOIR
Born: March 14, 1939 in Miami, Florida
Died: August 28, 2010 in Sandoval County, New Mexico


William B. Lenoir (Ph.D.)
NASA Astronaut (Deceased)

PERSONAL DATA: Born on March 14, 1939, in Miami, Florida.Married to Terri Waite.Three grown children. Bill Lenoir died on August 26, 2010 from head injuries sustained during a bicycle accident.

EDUCATION: Attended primary and secondary schools in Coral Gables, Florida; is a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he received a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering in 1961, a master of science degree in 1962, and a doctor of philosophy degree in 1965.

ORGANIZATIONS: Senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; and member of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Eta Kappa Nu, and the Society of Sigma Xi.

SPECIAL HONORS: Sloan Scholar at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and winner of the Carleton E. Tucker Award for Teaching Excellence at MIT; awarded the NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1974), and NASA Space Flight Medal (1982).

EXPERIENCE: From 1964 to 1965, Lenoir was an instructor at MIT; and in 1965, he was named assistant professor of electrical engineering. His work at MIT included teaching electromagnetic theory and systems theory as well as performing research in remote sensing. He was an investigator in several satellite experiments and continued research in this area while fulfilling his astronaut assignments.

Lenoir is a registered professional engineer in Texas.

He has logged over 3,000 hours of flying time in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Dr. Lenoir was selected as a scientist-astronaut by NASA in August 1967. He completed the initial academic training and a 53-week course in flight training at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas.

Lenoir was backup science-pilot for Skylab 3 and Skylab 4, the second and third manned missions in the Skylab Program. During Skylab 4, he was co-leader of the visual observations project and coordinator between the flight crew and the principal investigators for the solar science experiments.

From September 1974 to July 1976, Lenoir spent approximately one-half of his time as leader of the NASA Satellite Power Team. This team was formed to investigate the potential of large-scale satellite power systems for terrestrial utility consumption and to make program recommendations to NASA Headquarters. Lenoir supported the Space Shuttle program in the areas of orbit operations, training, extravehicular activity, and payload deployment and retrieval.

Dr. Lenoir flew as a mission specialist on the STS-5 (November 11-16, 1982, the first flight to deploy commercial satellites, and has logged over 122 hours in space. Following STS-5, Dr. Lenoir was responsible for the direction and management of mission development within the Astronaut Office.

Dr. Lenoir resigned from NASA in September 1984, to assume a position with the management and technology consulting firm of Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. in Arlington, Virginia. He returned to NASA in June 1989 as the Associate Administrator for Space Flight, responsible for the development, operating and implementation of the necessary policy for the Space Shuttle and all U.S. government civil launch activities.

Dr. Lenoir resigned from NASA in April 1992, to assume the position of Vice President of the Applied Systems Division at Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. in Bethesda, Maryland.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-5 Columbia launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on November 11, 1982. This was the first operational flight of the Spaceship Columbia and became known as the "We Deliver" mission. Two commercial communications satellites with Payload Assist Module upper stages (PAM-D) were successfully deployed from the Orbiter's cargo bay, a new first. This activity was shared with the world when the onboard television tape was played to the control center later that evening. In addition to collecting precise data to document the Shuttle's performance during launch, boost, orbit, atmospheric entry and landing phases, STS-5 carried a Getaway Special experiment, three Student Involvement Project experiments, and medical experiments. STS-5 was the last flight to carry the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) package to support flight testing. The STS-5 crew successfully concluded the 5-day orbital flight of Columbia with the first entry and landing through a cloud deck to a hard-surface runway, demonstrating maximum braking. STS-5 completed 81 orbits of the Earth before landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on November 16, 1982.




CAPTAIN GENE CERNAN
Born: March 14, 1934 in Chicago, Illinois
Died: January 16, 2017 in Houston, Texas


Eugene A. Cernan (Captain, U.S. Navy, Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Chicago, Illinois, on March 14, 1934. Married - Jan Nanna Cernan. They have three daughters, and one grandchild. His hobbies include love for horses, all competitive sports activities, including hunting, fishing and flying.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Proviso Township High School in Maywood, Illinois; received a bachelor of science degree in Electrical Engineering from Purdue University in 1956 and a master of science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California; recipient of an Honorary Doctorate of Law degree from Western State University College of Law in 1969, an Honorary Doctorate of Engineering from Purdue University in 1970, Drexel University in 1977, and Gonzaga University & Comenius University of the Slovak Republic, Petroleum Economics and Management Seminar, Northwestern University, 1978.

ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow, American Astronautical Society; member, Society of Experimental Test Pilots; member, Tau Beta Pi (National Engineering Society), Sigma Xi (National Science Research Society), Phi Gamma Delta (National Social Fraternity), and the Explorer's Club.

SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded two NASA Distinguished Service Medals, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the JSC Superior Achievement Award, two Navy Distinguished Service Medals, the Navy Astronaut Wings, the Navy Distinguished Flying Cross, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Special Trustees Award (1969), the Federation Aeronautique Internationale Gold Space Medal for 1972, the Cities of Houston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York Gold Medals, the VFW National Space Medal in 1973, Daughters of The American Revolution Medal of Honor, Induction into the U.S. Space Hall of Fame, the Challenger Center's "Salute to the U.S. Space Program" Honor, Slovak World Recognition Award and Slovak Presidential Medal of Honor.

EXPERIENCE: Cernan, a retired United States Navy Captain, received his commission through the Navy ROTC Program at Purdue. He entered flight training upon graduation. He was assigned to Attack Squadrons 26 and 112 at the Miramar, California, Naval Air Station, and Subsequently attended the Naval Postgraduate School. He has logged more than 5000 hours flying time with more than 4800 hours in jet aircraft and over 200 jet aircraft carrier landings.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Captain Cernan was one of fourteen astronauts selected by NASA in October 1963.

He occupied the pilot seat alongside of command pilot Tom Stafford on the Gemini IX mission. During this 3-day flight which Began on June 3, 1966, the spacecraft achieved a circular orbit of 161 statute miles; the crew used three different techniques to effect rendezvous with the previously launched Augmented Target Docking Adapter; and Cernan, the second American to walk in space, logged two hours and ten minutes outside the spacecraft in extravehicular activities. The flight ended after 72 hours and 20 minutes with a perfect re-entry and recovery as Gemini IX landed within 1-1/2 miles of the prime recovery ship USS WASP and 3/8 of a mile from the predetermined target.

Cernan subsequently served as backup pilot for Gemini 12 and as backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 7.

On his second space flight, he was lunar module pilot of Apollo 10, May 18-26, 1969, the first comprehensive lunar-orbital qualification and verification flight test of an Apollo lunar module. He was accompanied on the 248,000 nautical sojourn to the moon by Thomas P. Stafford (spacecraft commander) and John W. Young (commander module pilot). In accomplishing all of the assigned objectives of this mission, Apollo 10 confirmed the operations performance, stability, and reliability of the command/service module and lunar module configuration during trans-lunar coast, lunar orbit insertion, and lunar module separation and descent to within 8 nautical miles of the lunar surface. The latter maneuver involved employing all but the final minutes of the technique prescribed for use in an actual lunar landing, and allowed critical evaluations of the lunar module propulsions systems and rendezvous of the landing radar devices in subsequent rendezvous and re-docking maneuvers. In addition to demonstrating that man could navigate safely and accurately in the moon's gravitational fields, Apollo 10 photographed and mapped tentative landing sites for future missions.

Cernan's next assignment was backup spacecraft commander for Apollo 14.

He made his third space flight as spacecraft commander of Apollo 17--the last scheduled manned mission to the moon for the United States--which commenced at 11:33 P.M. (CST), December 6, 1972, with the first manned nighttime launch, and concluded on December 19, 1972. With him on the voyage of the command module "America" and the lunar module "Challenger" were Ronald Evans (command module pilot) and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt (lunar module pilot). In maneuvering "Challenger" to a landing at Taurus-Littrow, located on the southeast edge of Mare Serenitatis, Cernan and Schmitt activated a base of operations from which they completed three highly successful excursions to the nearby craters and the Taurus mountains, making the Moon their home for over three days. This last mission to the moon established several new records for manned space flight that include: longest manned lunar landing flight (301 hours 51 minutes); longest lunar surface extravehicular activities (22 hours 6 minutes); largest lunar sample return (an estimated 115 kg (249 lbs.); and longest time in lunar orbit (147 hours 48 minutes). While Cernan and Schmitt conducted activities on the lunar surface, Evans remained in lunar orbit aboard the "America" completing assigned work tasks requiring geological observations, handheld photography of specific targets, and the control of cameras and other highly sophisticated scientific equipment carried in the command module SIM-bay. Evans also completed a 1-hour, 6-minute extravehicular activity on the transearth coast phase of the return flight, successfully retrieving three camera cassettes and completing a personal inspection of the equipment bay area. Apollo 17 ended with a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean approximately 0.4 miles from the target point and 4.3 miles form the prime recovery ship USS TICONDEROGA.

Captain Cernan has logged 566 hours and 15 minutes in space-of which more than 73 hours were spent on the surface of the moon.

In September, 1973, Cernan assumed additional duties as Special Assistant to the Program Manager of the Apollo spacecraft Program at the Johnson Space Center. In this capacity, he assisted in the planning, development, and evaluation of the joint United States/Soviet Union Apollo-Soyuz mission, and he acted for the program manager as the senior United States negotiator in direct discussions with the USSR on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.

On July 1, 1976, Captain Cernan retired after over 20 years with the U.S. Navy. He concurrently terminated his formal association with NASA.

Captain Cernan was the second American to have walked in space having spanned the circumference of the world twice in a little more than 2-1/2 hours. He was one of the two men to have flown to the moon on two occasions, and as commander of the last mission to the moon, Apollo 17, had the privilege and distinction of being the last man to have left his footprints on the surface of the moon.

BUSINESS: Cernan joined Coral Petroleum, Inc., of Houston, Texas, as Executive Vice President-International. His responsibilities were to enhance Coral's energy related programs on a worldwide basis

In September 1981, Captain Cernan started his own company, The Cernan Corporation, to pursue management and consultant interests in the energy, aerospace, and other related industries. Additionally he has been actively involved as a co-anchorman on ABC-TV's presentations of the flight of the shuttle.

In a recent acquisition, Captain Cernan became Chairman of the Board of Johnson Engineering Corporation. Johnson Engineering currently provides the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with Flight Crew Systems Development with personnel located both on and off site at Johnson Space Center. Over the last seventeen years, Johnson Engineering has supported NASA in the design of crew stations for Space Shuttle, Spacelab, Space Station, Lunar Base and Mars Outpost. The company is directly involved with the operation of the 1-G trainers in Building 9A and B, as well as the Weightless Environment Training Facility in Building 29.




COLONEL GORDON COOPER JR.
Born: March 6, 1927 in Shawnee, Oklahoma
Died: October 4, 2004 in Ventura, California


Leroy Gordon Cooper, Jr. (Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Deceased)

PERSONAL DATA: Born March 6, 1927 in Shawnee, Oklahoma. His interests included treasure hunting, archeology, racing, flying, skiing, boating, hunting and fishing. Gordon Cooper passed away on October 4, 2004, at his home in Ventura, California, at the age of 77.

EDUCATION: Attended primary and secondary schools in Shawnee, Oklahoma and Murray, Kentucky; received a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) in 1956; recipient of an Honorary Doctorate of Science degree from Oklahoma City University in 1967.

ORGANIZATIONS: The Society of Experimental Test Pilots, The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, The American Astronautical Society, The Blue Lodge Masons, The York Rite Masons, The Scottish Rite Masons, The Royal Order of Jesters, The Sojourners, The Rotary Club, The Daedalians, The Confederate Air Force, The Boy Scouts of America, The Girl Scouts of America.

SPECIAL HONORS: The Air Force Legion of Merit, The Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross, The Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross Cluster, The NASA Exceptional Service Medal, The NASA Distinguished Service Medal, USAF Command Astronaut Wings, The Collier Trophy, The Harmon Trophy, The Scottish Rite 33, The York Rite Knight of the Purple Cross, The DeMolay Legion of Honor, The John F. Kennedy Trophy, The Ivan E. Kincheloe Trophy, The Air Force Association Trophy, The Primus Trophy, The John Montgomery Trophy, The General Thomas E. White Trophy, The Association of Aviation Writers Award, The University of Hawaii Regents Medal, The Columbus Medal, The Silver Antelope, The Sport Fishing Society of Spain Award.

EXPERIENCE: Cooper, an Air Force Colonel, received an Army commission after completing three years of schooling at the University of Hawaii. He transferred his commission to the Air Force and was placed on active duty by that service in 1949 and given flight training.

His next assignment was with the 86th Fighter Bomber Group in Munich, Germany, where he flew F-84s and F-86s for four years. While in Munich, he also attended the European Extension of the University of Maryland night school.

He returned to the United States and, after two years of study at AFIT, received his degree. He then reported to the Air Force Experimental Flight Test School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, and, upon graduating in 1957, was assigned as an aeronautical engineer and test pilot in the Performance Engineering Branch of the Flight Test Division at Edwards. His responsibilities there included the flight testing of experimental fighter aircraft.

He logged more than 7,000 hours flying time--4,000 hours in jet aircraft. He had flown all types of Commercial and General aviation airplane and helicopters.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Colonel Cooper was selected as a Mercury astronaut in April 1959.

On May 15-16, 1963, he piloted the "Faith 7" spacecraft on a 22-orbit mission which concluded the operational phase of Project Mercury. During the 34 hours and 20 minutes of flight, Faith 7 attained an apogee of 166 statute miles and a speed of 17,546 miles per hour and traveled 546,167 statute miles.

Cooper served as command pilot of the 8-day 120-revolution Gemini 5 mission which began on August 21, 1965. It was on this flight that he and pilot Charles Conrad established a new space endurance record by traveling a distance of 3,312,993 miles in an elapsed time of 190 hours and 56 minutes. Cooper also became the first man to make a second orbital flight and thus won for the United States the lead in man-hours in space by accumulating a total of 225 hours and 15 minutes.

He served as backup command pilot for Gemini 12 and as backup commander for Apollo X.

Colonel Cooper logged 222 hours in space.

He retired from the Air Force and NASA in 1970.

BUSINESS EXPERIENCE:

From 1962 to 1967, he was President of Performance Unlimited, Inc., a manufacturer and distributor of race and Marine engines, and fiberglass boats.

From 1963 to 1967, he was President of GCR, Inc. They designed, tested and raced championship cars at Indianapolis and other USAC tracks, conducted tire tests for Firestone Tire and Rubber Company and pioneered turbine engine installation on cars.

From 1965 to 1970, he was President of Teletest, Inc. They designed, installed and tested various systems using advanced Telemetry.

From 1966 to 1969, he participated with Doubloon, Inc., on design, construction, and utilization of Treasure Hunting equipment.

From 1968 to 1969, he participated with Cosmos, Inc., on Archeology exploration projects.

From 1968 to 1970, he was part owner and race project manager of the Profile Race Team. He also designed, raced and constructed high performance boats.

From 1968 to 1970, he was a Technical Consultant for corporate acquisitions and public relations for the Republic Corp.

From 1967 to 1969, he was Technical Consultant for design and construction of various automotive production items for General Motors, Ford and Chrysler Motor Companies.

From 1970 to 1972 he was Member of the Board of Directors and Technical Consultant for developing technical products and public relations in land development projects for Canaveral International, Inc.

From 1970 to 1975, he was President of the consulting firm Gordon Cooper & Associates, Inc. They specialized in technical projects ranging from airline and aerospace fields to land and hotel development.

From 1970 to 1974, he was on the Board of Directors for APECO which produced and marketed modular homes, computer systems, office systems, copy machines and boats and marine equipment.

From July 1972 to June 1973, he was a Member of Board of Directors and Technical Consultant for Campco, a corporation which built campers and mobile homes.

From August 1972 to December 1973, He was on the Board of Directors and a Technical Consultant for design and production of various advanced electronic systems for LowCom Systems, Inc.

From 1972 to 1973, he was on the Board of Directors and a Technical Consultant for design and construction of lifting, inflatable, steerable foils which could land cargo and/or personnel at a precise spot for Aerofoil Systems, Inc.

From July 1973 to January 1974, he was Vice President and member of the Board of Directors for Craftech Corporation. They specialized in the design and construction of economical homes, garages, storage buildings, and hangers of Craftboard and fiberglass.

From January 1973 to 1975, he was Chairman of the Board for Constant Energy Systems, Inc.

From January 1973 to 1975, he was Vice President for Research and Development/EPCOT for Walter E. Disney Enterprises, Inc., the research and development subsidiary of Walt Disney Productions.




CAPTAIN ROBERT CRIPPEN
Born: September 11, 1937 in Beaumont, Texas

Robert L. Crippen (Captain, U.S. Navy, Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Beaumont, Texas, on September 11, 1937. Married to the former Pandora Lee Puckett of Miami, Florida. Three grown daughters.

EDUCATION: Graduated from New Caney High School in Caney, Texas; received a bachelor of science degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Texas in 1960.

ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; American Astronautical Society; and Society of Experimental Test Pilots.

SPECIAL HONORS: NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (1988); Distinguished Service Medals (1985, 1988, 1993); U.S. Navy Distinguished Flying Cross (1984); Defense Meritorious Service Medal (1984); Federal Aviation Administration's Award for Distinguished Service (1982), Goddard Memorial Trophy (1982), Harmon Trophy (1982); NASA Space Flight Medals (1981, 1983, and 2 in 1984); NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1981), Department of Defense Distinguished Service Award (1981); American Astronautical Society Flight Achievement Award (1981); National Geographic Society's Gardiner Greene Hubbard Medal (1981); Aviation Hall of Fame 1981 Al J. Engel Ward; American Legion's Distinguished Service Medal (1981), Society of Experimental Test Pilots Ivan C. Kincheloe Award (1981); NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1972).

EXPERIENCE: Crippen received his commission through the Navy's Aviation Officer Program at Pensacola, Florida, which he entered after graduation from the University of Texas. He continued his flight training at Whiting Field, Florida, and went from there to Chase Field in Beeville, Texas, where he received his wings. From June 1962 to November 1964, he was assigned to Fleet Squadron VA-72--completing 2 1/2 years of duty as an attack pilot aboard the aircraft carrier USS INDEPENDENCE. He later attended the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, and upon graduation, remained there as an instructor until his selection in October 1966 to the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program. Crippen was among the second group of aerospace research pilots to be assigned to the MOL program.

He has logged more than 6,500 hour flying time, which includes more than 5,500 hours in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Crippen became a NASA astronaut in September 1969. He was a member of the astronaut support crew for the Skylab 2, 3, and 4 missions, and served in this same capacity for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission, which was completed successfully in July 1975. He served as pilot on STS-1 (April 12-14, 1981), and was the spacecraft commander on STS-7 (June 18-24, 1983), STS-41C (April 6-13, 1984) and STS-41G (October 5-13, 1984). A four flight veteran, Crippen has logged over 565 hours in space, orbited the earth 374 times and traveled over 9.4 million miles. Positions held include: 1986-1989 deputy director, Shuttle Operations, for NASA Headquarters at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, responsible for final Shuttle preparation, mission execution, and return of the orbiter to KSC after landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California; 1990-1992 served as director, Space Shuttle, at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., where he presided over the overall Shuttle program requirements and performance, and total program control including budget, schedule, and program content. 1992-1995 he managed Kennedy Space Center processing, launch, and recovery of Space Shuttle missions, ending a 21 year NASA career in January 1995 as the Director of the Kennedy Space Center. He next served as vice president of Training Simulation Systems at Lockheed Martin Information Systems. In December 1996 he became President of the Thiokol Propulsion Group, Brigham City, Utah. This newly established Group was composed of three divisions, Space Operations, Defense and Launch Vehicles, and Science and Engineering. Crippen retired in April 2001 as President of Thiokol Propulsion.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-1 (April 12-14, 1981) was the first orbital test flight of the Shuttle Columbia, the first true manned spaceship. It was also the first manned vehicle to be flown into orbit without benefit of previous unmanned "orbital" testing; the first to launch with wings using solid rocket boosters. It was also the first winged reentry vehicle to return to a conventional runway landing, weighing more than 99-tons as it was braked to a stop on the dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Mission duration was 54 hours, 20 minutes, 53 1 seconds

STS-7 (June 18-24, 1983) was the second flight for the Orbiter Challenger. This was also the first mission with a 5-person crew. During the 6-day flight the crew deployed satellites for Canada (ANIK C-2) and Indonesia (PALAPA B-1); operated the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to perform the first deployment and retrieval exercise with the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS-01); conducted the first formation flying of the orbiter with a free-flying satellite (SPAS-02); carried and operated the first U.S./German cooperative materials science payload (OSTA-2); and operated the Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) and the Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR) experiments, in addition to activating seven Getaway Specials. Mission duration was 146 hours, 23 minutes, 59 seconds.

STS-41C (April 6-13, 1984) was a 7-day mission during which the crew successfully deployed the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF); retrieved the ailing Solar Maximum Satellite, repaired it on-board the orbiting Challenger, and replaced it in orbit using the robot arm called the Remote Manipulator System (RMS); flight tested the Manned Manneuvering Units (MMU's) in two extravehicular activities (EVA's); as well as operating the Cinema 360 and IMAX Camera Systems, and a Bee Hive Honeycomb Structures student experiment. Mission duration was 167 hours, 40 minutes, 07 seconds.

STS-41G (October 5-13, 1984) was the first mission with a 7-person crew. During the 8-day flight the crew deployed the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite, conducted scientific observations of the earth with the OSTA-3 pallet and Large Format Camera, as well as demonstrating potential satellite refueling with an EVA and associated hydrazine transfer. Mission duration was 197 hours, 23 minutes, 37 seconds and concluded with a landing at Kennedy Space Center, Florida.




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