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MAJOR GENERAL CALIXTO GARCIA IÑIGUEZ - AUTOGRAPH LETTER SIGNED 07/23/1878 - HFSID 218055

 

CALIXTO GARCIA INIGUEZ
The Cuban Major General writes an interesting letter to his friend Hilario Cisneros thanking him for various favors, explaining the reason for his delay in his trip to New York and referring to the cause of the independence of Cuba.
Autograph Letter Signed: "Calixto G. Iniguez" in iron gall ink. 10¼x8. Fully Translated in English: "Paris July 23, 1878. Mr. Hilario Cisneros. My dear friend: After my arrival on the 19th of this month I received your kind letter dated on the 26th of last month, and I thank you for getting me transportation. I have received the one thousand francs that Mr. Aldama sent me so I beg you to express him my perpetual gratitude for him. I had to delay my departure from Spain because I needed to embark my mother to Cuba, so it also delayed my departure to New York; but now I am doing my best to be able to meet with some friends that I have here, to see the possibility of leaving at the beginning of next month. So, tell me where we are going to meet up, I will have the pleasure to give you a warm hug. I thank you for your good wishes. I wish you had not lost {illegible}, my liberty to the independence cause. I send my affection to your entire respectable family. Your sincere friend, Calixto G. Iniguez." Calixto Garcia Iniguez was a Major General who participated in the three Cuban insurrections, part of the Cuban War for Independence better known as Ten Year's War, the Little War and the War of 1895, sometimes referred as "Cuban War for Independence", which led to the Spanish-American War, that resulted in the national independence of Cuba. His parents were Cuban Criollo descendants and his maternal surname Iniguez, indicates that he was related to Inigo Arista, a king whose forces are considered and referred to as demons in the Song of Roland. His grandfather was Calixto Garcia de Luna e Izquierdo, who fought in the Battle of Carabobo in 1821 during the Venezuelan War of Independence, and his grandmother was Maria de los Angeles Gonzalez, claimed to be the daughter of a Cacique Chief from Valencia, Venezuela. His grandfather decided to drop the aristocratic "de Luna" after taking refuge in Cuba and was made prisoner on March 18, 1837 for demanding emancipation of slaves, constitutional freedom for all, and apparently trying to hang a priest who opposed him. When Garcia Iniguez was around the age of 18, taking after his grandfather, joined the Cuban rebellion that became the Ten Year's War. He fought against the colonial Spanish Empire for five years until his capture. It is well known that being far away from his troops and protected only by twenty of his men who soon were laying down dead around him, Calixto trying to avoid giving the Spaniards the satisfaction of his capture, shot himself under the chin with a .45 caliber pistol. Even though the bullet came out from his forehead and knocked him unconscious, he did not die, but the wound left a big scar and gave him headaches for the rest of his life. It is a common anecdote that when Spanish officials told Calixto Garcia's famous mother, Lucia Iniguez, that her son had been captured, she said that it could not be her son, but when they explained her that Calixto triend to commit suicide she exclaimed: "So it is my son, first dead than captured!" He remained in jail until the Pact of Zanjon and the end of the Ten Year's War in 1878. Calixto traveled to Paris and New York between imprisonments and in keeping of his seek, joined the Little War from 1879 to 1880 and the War of 1895 alongside Maceo, and in 1896 Calixto succeeded him as the second in command in the Cuban Army. Calixto Garcia had a long string of victories in the Ten Year's War including the taking of Tunas and Guisa, and the emotionally significant re-occupation of Bayamo. Garcia also made liberal use of spies to prepare his attack, including Dominador de la Guardia father of Angel de la Guardia and Maria Machado, illegitimate daughter of the Spanish General Emilio March, who helped in the preparations for the taking of Tunas. At the time of the U.S. landings, Garcia, doing a master use of the artillery, controlled the interior of old Oriente Province and prepared the landing places for the U.S. Army near Santiago. The troops of Calixto Garcia successfully supported the Marine forces at Guantanamo who, once out of range of the guns of the USS Marblehead, had difficulty dealing with Spanish guerrilla tactics. Calixto was also the General who had to deal with the American troops and joined them in military actions, only to be denied entrance into Santiago de Cuba when the Spanish surrendered.Some of Garcia Iniguez's sons joined him in the combats, being the most notable ones Carlos Garcia Velez and Calixto Enamorado. Garcia Iniguez died of pneumonia on December 11, 1898 in Washington, D.C. and was temporarily buried in Arlington National Cemetery in the U.S. but was later transported in the heavily armed seagoing war ship USS Nashville to Cuba where he at the request of his mother had a Cuban funeral. Multiple mailing folds. Toned. Pencil notes on front and verso(unknown hand). 1-inch and ¾-inch separations at middle fold. Paper clip impression. Otherwise, fine condition.


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MAJOR GENERAL CALIXTO GARCIA IÑIGUEZ  


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MAJOR GENERAL CALIXTO GARCIA IÑIGUEZ
Born: August 4, 1839 in Holguín, Cuba
Died: December 11, 1898 in Washington, District of Columbia





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