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COLUMBIA: 1986. Photograph signed: "Charlie Bolden Jr.", "Pinky Nelson", "Steven A. Hawley", "Robert L. Gibson" and "Franklin N. Chang-Diaz". Color, 8x10. Official NASA photo, caption on verso. Inscribed in another hand at top: "To Joseph/Best Wishes from 61-C". Also pictured but not signing are Payload Specialists Bob Cenker from RCA and U.S. Congressman Bill Nelson. The ill-fated Challenger 51-L mission was launched just ten days after the Columbia 61-C mission (January 12-18, 1986) ended. Lightly creased. Fine condition.

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Born: August 19, 1946 in Columbia, South Carolina

Charles F. Bolden, Jr. (Major General, U.S. Marine Corps Retired)

Nominated by President Barack Obama and confirmed by the U.S. Senate, retired Marine Corps Major General Charles Frank Bolden, Jr., began his duties as the twelfth Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on July 17, 2009. As Administrator, he leads the NASA team and manages its resources to advance the agency's missions and goals.

Bolden's confirmation marks the beginning of his second stint with the nation's space agency. His 34-year career with the Marine Corps included 14 years as a member of NASA's Astronaut Office. After joining the office in 1980, he traveled to orbit four times aboard the space shuttle between 1986 and 1994, commanding two of the missions. His flights included deployment of the Hubble Space Telescope and the first joint U.S.-Russian shuttle mission, which featured a cosmonaut as a member of his crew. Prior to Bolden's nomination for the NASA Administrator's job, he was employed as the Chief Executive Officer of JACKandPANTHER LLC, a small business enterprise providing leadership, military and aerospace consulting, and motivational speaking.

A resident of Houston, Bolden was born Aug. 19, 1946, in Columbia, S.C. He graduated from C. A. Johnson High School in 1964 and received an appointment to the U.S. Naval Academy. Bolden earned a bachelor of science degree in electrical science in 1968 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps. After completing flight training in 1970, he became a naval aviator. Bolden flew more than 100 combat missions in North and South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, while stationed in Namphong, Thailand, from 1972-1973.

After returning to the U.S., Bolden served in a variety of positions in the Marine Corps in California and earned a master of science degree in systems management from the University of Southern California in 1977. Following graduation, he was assigned to the Naval Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Md., and completed his training in 1979. While working at the Naval Air Test Center's Systems Engineering and Strike Aircraft Test Directorates, he tested a variety of ground attack aircraft until his selection as an astronaut candidate in 1980.

Bolden's NASA astronaut career included technical assignments as the Astronaut Office Safety Officer; Technical Assistant to the Director of Flight Crew Operations; Special Assistant to the Director of the Johnson Space Center; Chief of the Safety Division at Johnson (overseeing safety efforts for the return to flight after the 1986 Challenger accident); lead astronaut for vehicle test and checkout at the Kennedy Space Center; and Assistant Deputy Administrator at NASA Headquarters. After his final space shuttle flight in 1994, he left the agency to return to active duty the operating forces in the Marine Corps as the Deputy Commandant of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy.

Bolden was assigned as the Deputy Commanding General of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force in the Pacific in 1997. During the first half of 1998, he served as Commanding General of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force Forward in support of Operation Desert Thunder in Kuwait. Bolden was promoted to his final rank of major general in July 1998 and named Deputy Commander of U.S. Forces in Japan. He later served as the Commanding General of the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar in San Diego, Calif., from 2000 until 2002, before retiring from the Marine Corps in 2003. Bolden's many military decorations include the Defense Superior Service Medal and the Distinguished Flying Cross. He was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in May 2006.

Bolden is married to the former Alexis (Jackie) Walker of Columbia, S.C. The couple has two children: Anthony Che, a lieutenant colonel in the Marine Corps who is married to the former Penelope McDougal of Sydney, Australia, and Kelly Michelle, a medical doctor now serving a fellowship in plastic surgery.

Born: July 13, 1950 in Charles City, Iowa

George D. (nickname Pinky) Nelson (Ph.D.)
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born July 13, 1950, in Charles City, Iowa. Considers Willmar, Minnesota, to be his hometown. His wife Susie is from Alhambra, California. They have two daughters. Pinky enjoys playing golf, reading, swimming, running, and music.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Willmar Senior High School, Willmar, Minnesota, in 1968; received a bachelor of science degree in Physics from Harvey Mudd College in 1972 and a master of science and a doctorate in Astronomy from the University of Washington in 1974 and 1978, respectively.

SPECIAL HONORS: NASA Exceptional Engineering Achievement Medal, NASA Exceptional Service Medal, 3 NASA Space Flight Medals, AIAA Haley Space Flight Award, Federation Aeronautique Internationale's V. M. Komarov Diploma.

EXPERIENCE: Dr. Nelson performed astronomical research at the Sacramento Peak Solar Observatory, Sunspot, New Mexico; the Astronomical Institute at Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, and the University of Gottingen Observatory, Gottingen, West Germany, and at the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics in Boulder, Colorado.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Dr. Nelson was selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in January 1978. He flew as a scientific equipment operator in the WB 57-F earth resources aircraft; served as the Astronaut Office representative in the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (space suit) development effort. During STS-1 he was the photographer in the prime chase plane. He also served as support crewman and CAPCOM for the last two OFT flights, STS-3 and STS-4, and as head of the Astronaut Office Mission Development Group. A verteran of three space flights, Dr. Nelson served aboard STS-41C in 1984, STS-61C in 1986 and STS-26 in 1988. He has logged a total of 411 hours in space, including 10 hours of EVA flight time.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-41C Challenger (April 6-13, 1984) was a seven day mission during which the crew successfully deployed the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF); retrieved the ailing Solar Maximum Satellite, repaired it on-board the Orbiter, and replaced it in orbit. The mission also included flight testing of Manned Maneuvering Units (MMUs) in two extravehicular activities (EVAs), and operation of the Cinema 360 and IMAX Camera Systems.

STS-61C Columbia (January 12-18, 1986) launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and returned to a night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California. During the six day flight the crew deployed the SATCOM KU satellite, and conducted experiments in astrophysics and materials processing.

STS-26 Discovery (September 29 to October 3, 1988) was the first mission flown after the Challenger accident. During the four day flight, the crew successfully deployed the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-C), and operated eleven mid- deck science experiments.

Born: October 30, 1946 in Cooperstown, New York

Robert L. Gibson (Captain, U.S. Navy Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born October 30, 1946, in Cooperstown, New York, but considers Lakewood, California, to be his hometown. Married to Dr. M. Rhea Seddon of Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Four children. He enjoys home built aircraft, formula one air racing, running and surfing during his free time. His mother, Mrs. Paul A. Gibson, resides in Seal Beach, California; his father is deceased. Her father, Mr. Edward C. Seddon, resides in Murfreesboro; her mother is deceased.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Huntington High School, Huntington, New York, in 1964; received an associate degree in engineering science from Suffolk County Community College in 1966, and a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering from California Polytechnic State University in 1969.

SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded the Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI) “Louis Bleriot Medal” (1992), and the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) “Freedom of Flight” Award (1989). Established world records for “Altitude in Horizontal Flight,” Airplane Class C1A in 1991, and “Time to Climb to 9000 Meters” in 1994. Military awards include: the Defense Superior Service Medal; the Distinguished Flying Cross; 3 Air Medals; the Navy Commendation Medal with Combat “V”; a Navy Unit Commendation; Meritorious Unit Commendation; Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal; Humanitarian Service Medal; and Vietnam Campaign Medal.

EXPERIENCE: Gibson entered active duty with the Navy in 1969. He received primary and basic flight training at Naval Air Stations Saufley Field and Pensacola, Florida, and Meridian, Mississippi, and completed advanced flight training at the Naval Air Station at Kingsville, Texas.

While assigned to Fighter Squadrons 111 and 1, during the period April 1972 to September 1975, he saw duty aboard the USS Coral Sea (CVA-43) and the USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) -- flying combat missions in Southeast Asia. He is a graduate of the Naval Fighter Weapons School, "Topgun." Gibson returned to the United States and an assignment as an F-14A instructor pilot with Fighter Squadron 124. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School, Patuxent River, Maryland, in June 1977, and later became involved in the test and evaluation of F-14A aircraft while assigned to the Naval Air Test Center's Strike Aircraft Test Directorate.

His flight experience includes over 6,000 hours in over 50 types of civil and military aircraft. He holds airline transport pilot, multi-engine, and instrument ratings, and has held a private pilot rating since age 17. Gibson has also completed over 300 carrier landings.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in January 1978, Gibson became an astronaut in August 1979. Gibson has flown five missions and has completed a total of 36-1/2 days in space. He served as pilot on STS-41B (February 3-11, 1984), and was spacecraft commander on STS-61C (January 12-18,1986), STS-27 (December 2-6, 1988), STS-47 (September 12-20, 1992), and STS-71 (June 27 to July 7, 1995). Gibson participated in the investigation of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, and also participated in the redesign and recertification of the solid rocket boosters. Gibson served as Chief of the Astronaut Office (December 1992 to September 1994) and as Deputy Director, Flight Crew Operations (March-November 1996).

Gibson left NASA in November 1996 to pursue private business interests.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-41B launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on February 3, 1984. The flight accomplished the proper Shuttle deployment of two Hughes 376 communications satellites which failed to reach desired geosynchronous orbits due to upper stage rocket failures. Rendezvous sensors and computer programs were flight tested for the first time. The STS 41-B mission marked the first checkout of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), and Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR), with Bruce McCandless and Bob Stewart performing two spectacular EVA's (space walks). The German Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS), Remote Manipulator System (RMS), six "Getaway Specials," and materials processing experiments were included on the mission. The eight-day orbital flight of Challenger culminated in the first landing on the runway at the Kennedy Space Center on February 11, 1984. Mission duration was 191 hours, 15 minutes, 55 seconds.

STS-61C Columbia launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on January 12, 1986. During the six-day flight the seven-man crew aboard the Orbiter Columbia deployed the SATCOM KU satellite and conducted experiments in astrophysics and materials processing. The mission concluded with a successful night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on January 18, 1986. Mission duration was 146 hours, 3 minutes, 51 seconds.

STS-27 Atlantis launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on December 2, 1988. The mission carried a Department of Defense payload, and a number of secondary payloads. After 68 orbits of the Earth the mission concluded with a dry lakebed landing on Runway 17 at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on December 6, 1988. Mission duration was 105 hours, 6 minutes, 19 seconds.

STS-47, Spacelab-J, the 50th Space Shuttle mission, launched on September 12, 1992. The mission was a cooperative venture between the United States and Japan, and included the first Japanese astronaut as a member of the seven-person crew. During the eight-day flight, the crew aboard the Orbiter Endeavour focused on life science and materials processing experiments in over forty investigations in the Spacelab laboratory, as well as scientific and engineering tests performed aboard the Orbiter Endeavour. After 126 orbits of the Earth, the mission ended with a successful landing on the runway at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on September 20, 1992. Mission duration was 190 hours, 30 minutes, 23 seconds.

STS-71 (June 27 to July 7, 1995), carried a crew of seven-members (up) and eight-members (down) on Space Shuttle mission STS-71 was the first Space Shuttle mission to dock with the Russian Space Station Mir, and involved an exchange of crews. The Atlantis Space Shuttle was modified to carry a docking system compatible with the Russian Mir Space Station. It also carried a Spacelab module in the payload bay in which the crew performed various life sciences experiments and data collections. Mission duration was 235 hours, 23 minutes.

Born: December 12, 1951 in Ottawa, Kansas

Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.)

PERSONAL DATA: Born December 12, 1951, in Ottawa, Kansas, but considers Salina, Kansas, to be his hometown. Married to the former Eileen M. Keegan of Redondo Beach, California. He enjoys golf and watching baseball. His parents, Dr. and Mrs. Bernard Hawley, reside in Surprise, Arizona.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Salina (Central) High School, Salina, Kansas, in 1969; received bachelor of arts degrees in physics and astronomy (graduating with highest distinction) from the University of Kansas in 1973, and a doctor of philosophy in astronomy and astrophysics from the University of California in 1977.

ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the American Astronomical Society, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Association of Space Explorers, the American Astronautical Association, Sigma Pi Sigma, and Phi Beta Kappa.

SPECIAL HONORS: Evans Foundation Scholarship, 1970; University of Kansas Honor Scholarship, 1970; Summerfield Scholarship, 1970-1973; Veta B. Lear Award, 1970; Stranathan Award, 1972; Outstanding Physics Major Award, 1973; University of California Regents Fellowship, 1974; Group Achievement Award for software testing at the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory, 1981; NASA Outstanding Performance Award, 1981; NASA Superior Performance Award, 1981; Group Achievement Award for Second Orbiter Test and Checkout at Kennedy Space Center, 1982; Quality Increase, 1982; NASA Space Flight Medal (1984, 1986, 1990, 1997, 1999); Group Achievement Award for JSC Strategic Planning, 1987; NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1988, 1991); Special Achievement Award, 1988; Exceptional Service Medal for Return to Flight, 1988; Outstanding Leadership Medal, 1990; Special Achievement Award, 1990; Haley Flight Achievement Award, 1991; Kansan of the Year Award, 1992; Group Achievement Award for ESIG 3000 Integration Project, 1994; Presidential Rank Award (1994, 1999); Group Achievement Award for Space Shuttle Program Functional Workforce Review, 1995; Group Achievement Award for SFOC Contract Acquisition, 1997; Kansas Aviation Hall of Fame, 1997; Kansas University Distinguished Service Citation, 1998; NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1998, 2000); Aviation Week and Space Technology Laurel Citation for Space, 1998, V.M. Komarov Diploma from the FAI (Federation Aeronautique Internationale) (1998, 2000, Alumni Distinguished Achievement Award (Univesity of Kansas), 2007, Astronaut Hall of Fame Inductee, 2007.

EXPERIENCE: Hawley attended the University of Kansas, majoring in physics and astronomy. He spent three summers employed as a research assistant: 1972 at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., and 1973 and 1974 at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia. He attended graduate school at Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz. His research involved spectrophotometry of gaseous nebulae and emission-line galaxies with particular emphasis on chemical abundance determinations for these objects. The results of his research have been published in major astronomical journals. Prior to his selection by NASA in 1978, Hawley was a post-doctoral research associate at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in La Serena, Chile.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Dr. Hawley was selected as a NASA astronaut in January 1978. Prior to STS-1, he served as a simulator pilot for software checkout at the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL). For STS-2, STS-3, and STS-4, he was a member of the astronaut support crew at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, for Orbiter test and checkout, and also served as prime close-out crewman for STS-3 and STS-4. During 1984-1985, he was Technical Assistant to the Director, Flight Crew Operations. From 1987-1990, he was the Deputy Chief of the Astronaut Office. In June 1990, he left the Astronaut Office to assume the post of Associate Director of NASA's Ames Research Center in California. In August 1992, he returned to the Johnson Space Center as Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations. Dr. Hawley was returned to astronaut flight status in February 1996. He served on the second Hubble Space Telescope mission and returned to duty as Deputy Director, Flight Crew Operations. From October 2001 to November 2002, Dr. Hawley served as Director, Flight Crew Operations. From 2003 to 2004, Dr. Hawley also served as the First Chief Astronaut for the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. From 2002 to 2008 he served as Director, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate. Dr. Hawley was responsible for directing a scientific organization conducting research in planetary and space science. The primary functions of the organization included astromaterials acquisition and curation, astromaterials research, and human exploration science. A veteran of five space flights (STS-41D in 1984, STS-61C in 1986, STS-31 in 1990, STS-82 in 1997 and STS-93 in 1999), Dr. Hawley logged 32 days in space. Dr. Hawley retired from NASA in May 2008.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: Dr. Hawley has logged a total of 770 hours and 27 minutes in five space flights. He served as a mission specialist on STS-41D in 1984, STS-61C in 1986, STS-31 in 1990, STS-82 in 1997 and STS-93 in 1999.

STS-41D Discovery (August 30 to September 5, 1984) was launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and returned to land at Edwards Air Force Base, California. This was the maiden flight of the Space Shuttle Discovery. During the 7-day mission the crew successfully activated the OAST-1 solar cell wing experiment, deployed the SBS-D, SYNCOM IV-2, and TELSTAR 3-C satellites, operated the CFES-III experiment, the student crystal growth experiment, as well as photography experiments using the IMAX motion picture camera. The mission was completed in 96 orbits of the Earth in 144 hours and 57 minutes.

STS-61C Columbia (January 12-18, 1986) was launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and returned to a night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California. During the 6-day flight the crew deployed the SATCOM KU satellite and conducted experiments in astrophysics and materials processing. Mission duration was 146 hours and 03 minutes.

STS-31 Discovery (April 24-29, 1990) was launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, and also returned to land at Edwards Air Force Base, California. During the 5-day mission, the crew deployed the Hubble Space Telescope, and conducted a variety of middeck experiments involving the study of protein crystal growth, polymer membrane processing, and the effects of weightlessness and magnetic fields on an ion arc. They also operated a variety of cameras, including both the IMAX in-cabin and cargo bay cameras, for Earth observations from their record-setting altitude of 380 miles. The mission was completed in 76 orbits of the earth in 121 hours.

STS-82 Discovery (February 11-21, 1997) the second Hubble Space Telescope (HST) maintenance mission, was launched at night and returned to a night landing at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. During the flight, Dr. Hawley's primary role was to operate the Shuttle's 50-foot robot arm to retrieve and redeploy the HST following completion of upgrades and repairs. Dr. Hawley also operated the robot arm during five space walks in which two teams installed two new spectrometers and eight replacement instruments. They also replaced insulation patches over three compartments containing key data processing, electronics and scientific instrument telemetry packages. HST was then redeployed and boosted to a higher orbit. The flight was completed in 149 orbits covering 3.8 million miles in 9 days, 23 hours, 37 minutes.

STS-93 Columbia (July 22-27, 1999) was launched from the Kennedy Space Center on a 5-day mission returning to KSC for the 12th night landing in the Shuttle Program's history. Dr. Hawley served as Columbia's flight engineer. The primary mission objective was the successful deployment of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the third of NASA's Great Observatories after Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Dr. Hawley also served as the primary operator of a second telescope carried in the crew module which was used for several days to make broadband ultraviolet observations of a variety of solar system objects. The mission completed 79 orbits in 4 days, 22 hours, and 50 minutes.

Dr. Hawley is a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Kansas.

Born: April 5, 1950 in San Jose, Costa Rica


PERSONAL DATA: Born April 5, 1950, in San Jose, Costa Rica, to the late Mr. Ramon A. Chang-Morales and Mrs. Mari­a Eugenia Díaz De Chang. Married to the former Peggy Marguerite Doncaster of Alexandria, Louisiana. Four children. He enjoys music, glider planes, soccer, scuba diving and hiking. His mother, brothers and sisters still reside in Costa Rica.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Colegio De La Salle in San José, Costa Rica, in November 1967 and from Hartford High School in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1969; received a Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Connecticut in 1973 and a Doctorate in Applied Plasma Physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1977.

SPECIAL HONORS: Recipient of the University of Connecticut's Outstanding Alumni Award (1980); seven NASA Space Flight Medals (1986, 1989, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2002); two NASA Distinguished Service Medals (1995, 1997) and three NASA Exceptional Service Medals (1988, 1990, 1993). In 1986, he received the Liberty Medal from President Ronald Reagan at the Statue of Liberty Centennial Celebration in New York City and, in 1987, the Medal of Excellence from the Congressional Hispanic Caucus. He received the Cross of the Venezuelan Air Force from President Jaime Lusinchi during the 68th Anniversary of the Venezuelan Air Force in Caracas, Venezuela (1988), and the Flight Achievement Award from the American Astronautical Society (1989). Recipient of four Doctorates “Honoris Causa” (Doctor of Science from the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Doctor of Science from the University of Connecticut, Doctor of Law from Babson College and Doctor of Science from the Universidade de Santiago de Chile. He is honorary faculty at the College of Engineering, University of Costa Rica. In April 1995, the government of Costa Rica conferred on him the title of “Honorary Citizen.” This is the highest honor Costa Rica confers to a foreign citizen, making him the first such honoree who was actually born there. Recipient of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2001 Wyld Propulsion Award for his 21 years of research on the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) engine.

EXPERIENCE: While attending the University of Connecticut, he also worked as a research assistant in the Physics Department and participated in the design and construction of high-energy atomic collision experiments. Following graduation in 1973, he entered graduate school at MIT, becoming heavily involved in the United States' controlled fusion program and doing intensive research in the design and operation of fusion reactors. He obtained his Doctorate in the field of Applied Plasma Physics and fusion technology and, in that same year, joined the technical staff of the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. His work at Draper was geared strongly toward the design and integration of control systems for fusion reactor concepts and experimental devices in both inertial and magnetic confinement fusion. In 1979, he developed a novel concept to guide and target fuel pellets in an inertial fusion reactor chamber. Later on, he was engaged in the design of a new concept in rocket propulsion, based on magnetically confined high temperature plasmas. As a visiting scientist with the MIT Plasma Fusion Center, from October 1983 to December 1993, he led the plasma propulsion program there to develop this technology for future human missions to Mars. From December 1993 to July 2005, Dr. Chang-Díaz served as Director of the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center, where he continued his research on plasma rockets. He is an Adjunct Professor of Physics at Rice University and the University of Houston and has presented numerous papers at technical conferences and in scientific journals.

In addition to his main fields of science and engineering, he worked for 2-1/2 years as a house manager in an experimental community residence for de-institutionalizing chronic mental patients, and was heavily involved as an instructor/advisor with a rehabilitation program for Hispanic drug abusers in Massachusetts.

Dr. Chang-Díaz retired from NASA in July 2005.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in May 1980, Dr. Chang-Díaz became an astronaut in August 1981. While undergoing astronaut training, he was also involved in flight software checkout at the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL) and participated in the early space station design studies. In late 1982, he was designated as support crew for the first Spacelab mission and, in November 1983, served as in-orbit Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) during that flight. From October 1984 to August 1985, he was leader of the astronaut support team at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. His duties included astronaut support during the processing of the various vehicles and payloads as well as flight crew support during the final phases of the launch countdown. He has logged more than 1,800 hours of flight time, including 1,500 hours in jet aircraft.

Dr. Chang-Díaz was instrumental in implementing closer ties between the astronaut corps and the scientific community. In January 1987, he started the Astronaut Science Colloquium Program and later helped form the Astronaut Science Support Group, which he directed until January 1989.

A veteran of seven spaceflights, STS 61-C (1986), STS-34 (1989), STS-46 (1992), STS-60 (1994), STS-75 (1996), STS-91 (1998) and STS-111 (2002), he has logged more than 1,601 hours in space, including 19 hours and 31 minutes in three spacewalks.

SPACEFLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS 61-C (January 12 to January 18, 1986) was launched from Kennedy Space Center on space shuttle Columbia. STS 61-C was a six-day flight, during which Dr. Chang-Díaz participated in the deployment of the SATCOM KU satellite, conducted experiments in astrophysics and operated the materials processing laboratory MSL-2. Following 96 orbits of the Earth, Columbia and her crew made a successful night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Mission duration was 146 hours, 3 minutes and 51 seconds.

On STS-34 (October 18 to October 23, 1989) The crew aboard space shuttle Atlantis successfully deployed the Galileo spacecraft on its journey to explore Jupiter, operated the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) to map atmospheric ozone and performed numerous secondary experiments involving radiation measurements, polymer morphology, lightning research, microgravity effects on plants and a student experiment on ice crystal growth in space. STS-34 launched from Kennedy Space Center and landed at Edwards Air Force Base. Mission duration was 119 hours and 41 minutes and was accomplished in 79 orbits of the Earth.

STS-46 (July 31 to August 8, 1992) was an eight-day mission, during which crew members deployed the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) satellite and conducted the first Tethered Satellite System (TSS) test flight. Mission duration was 191 hours, 16 minutes and 7 seconds. Space shuttle Atlantis and her crew launched and landed at the Kennedy Space Center after completing 126 orbits of the Earth in 3.35 million miles.

STS-60 (February 3 to February 11, 1994) was the first flight of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF-1), the second flight of the Space Habitation Module-2 (Spacehab-2) and the first joint U.S./Russian space shuttle mission on which a Russian cosmonaut was a crew member. During the eight-day flight, the crew aboard space shuttle Discovery conducted a wide variety of biological materials science, Earth observation and life science experiments. STS-60 launched and landed at Kennedy Space Center. The mission achieved 130 orbits of Earth in 3,439,705 miles.

STS-75 (February 22 to March 9, 1996) was a 15-day mission with principal payloads being the reflight of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) and the third flight of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3). The TSS successfully demonstrated the ability of tethers to produce electricity. The TSS experiment produced a wealth of new information on the electrodynamics of tethers and plasma physics before the tether broke at 19.7 km, just shy of the 20.7 km goal. The crew also worked around the clock performing combustion experiments and research related to USMP-3 microgravity investigations used to improve the production of medicines, metal alloys and semiconductors. The mission was completed in 252 orbits, covering 6.5 million miles in 377 hours and 40 minutes.

STS-91 Discovery (June 2 to June 12, 1998) was the ninth and final shuttle-Mir docking mission and marked the conclusion of the highly successful joint U.S./Russian Phase I program. The crew, including a Russian cosmonaut, performed logistics and hardware resupply of the Mir during four docked days. They also conducted the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment, which involved the first-of-its-kind research of antimatter in space. Mission duration was 235 hours and 54 minutes.

STS-111 Endeavour (June 5 to June 19, 2002) delivered a new International Space Station resident crew and a Canadian-built mobile base for the orbiting outpost's robotic arm. The crew also performed late-notice repair of the station's robotic arm by replacing one of the arm's joints. It was the second space shuttle mission dedicated to delivering research equipment to the space platform. Dr. Chang- Díaz performed three spacewalks to help install the Canadian Mobile Base System to the station's robotic arm. STS-111 also brought home the Expedition 4 crew from their six-and-a-half-month stay aboard the station. Mission duration was 13 days, 20 hours and 35 minutes. Unacceptable weather conditions in Florida necessitated a landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

Film Credits
2011 Nova ScienceNow (in person), 2011 Naked Science (in person), 2009-2011 Known Universe (in person), 2009 Celebrity Habla (in person), 2007 The Mars Underground (in person), 2006 UFO: The Greatest Story Ever Denied (Other), 2005 The Wild Blue Yonder (Performer), 1997 RocketMan (Performer), 1986 And the Pursuit of Happiness (in person)

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