|MAJOR GENERAL VALENTINA TERESHKOVA|
Born: March 6, 1937 in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russian SFSR
Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova was born 6 March
1937, is a retired Soviet cosmonaut and the first woman to have flown in space,
having been selected from more than four hundred applicants and five finalists
to pilot Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963. In order to join the Cosmonaut Corps,
Tereshkova was only honorarily inducted into the Soviet Air Force and thus she
also became the first civilian to fly in space. During her three-day mission,
she performed various tests on herself to collect data on the female body's
reaction to spaceflight.
Before being recruited as a cosmonaut,
Tereshkova was a textile factory assembly worker and an amateur parachutist.
After the dissolution of the first group of female cosmonauts in 1969, she
became a prominent member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, holding
various political offices. She remained politically active following the
collapse of the Soviet Union and is still revered as a heroine in post-Soviet
2011 Love, Hate & Propaganda: The Cold War (Other), 2009 Cosmonaut (Other), 1998 Cold War (Other), 1991 Far from St. Petersburg (Editing), 1991 Far from St. Petersburg (in person), 1973 Wer die Erde liebt (in person), 1972 Valentina Tereshkova (in person), 1963 Geliebt von Millionen (in person)
MAJOR GENERAL ANDRIAN NIKOLAYEV
Born: September 5, 1929 in Shorshely, Chuvashia, Russia
Died: July 3, 2004 in Cheboksary, Chuvashia, Russia
Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev (5 September 1929 – 3
July 2004) was a Soviet cosmonaut. He was an ethnic Chuvash.
Nikolayev flew on two space flights: Vostok 3
(effectively becoming the third Soviet cosmonaut) and Soyuz 9. His call sign in
these flights was Falcon. On both, he set new endurance records for the longest
time a human being had remained in orbit. He also served as backup for the
Vostok 2 and Soyuz 8 missions. On 22 January 1969, Nikolayev survived an
assassination attempt on Leonid Brezhnev, undertaken by a Soviet Army deserter,
Viktor Ilyin. He left the cosmonaut corps on 26 January
Nikolayev was also the first person to make a television
broadcast from space, in August 1962. Vostok 3 was part the first dual space
flight, with Pavel Popovich on Vostok 4.
In the early days of space
travel, it was usual to place trainee astronauts into isolation chambers to see
how long they could last alone. They sat in silence unable to gauge time. Many
men cracked. One cosmonaut, Andriyan Nikolayev lasted the longest - four days -
and became known as the Iron Man.
On 3 November 1963, he married
Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman to fly in space. They had one daughter,
Elena Andriyanovna (now a Doctor of Medicine), before their marriage collapsed.
However, it was not until 1982 that they divorced.
Nikolayev died of a heart attack in Cheboksary, the capital of Chuvashia in
LT. GENERAL VLADIMIR SHATALOV
Born: December 8, 1927 in Petropavlovsk, Kazakh SSR
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov (born December 8, 1927
in Petropavlovsk) is a former Soviet cosmonaut who flew three space missions of
the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 4, Soyuz 8, and Soyuz 10.
From 1971 to 1987 he was Commander of Cosmonaut Training,
and Director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre from then until
Quote: "When we look into the sky it seems to us to be
endless. We breathe without thinking about it, as is natural... and then you sit
aboard a spacecraft, you tear away from Earth, and within ten minutes you have
been carried straight through the layer of air, and beyond there is nothing! The
'boundless' blue sky, the ocean which gives us breath and protects us from
endless black and death, is but an infinitesimally thin film. How dangerous it
is to threaten even the smallest part of this gossamer covering, this conserver
1981 To the Stars by Hard Ways (Other)
VALERI N. KUBASOV
Born: January 7, 1935 in Vyazniki, Vladimir Oblast, USSR
Died: February 19, 2014 in Moscow, Russia
Valeri Nikolayevich Kubasov (born 7 January 1935 in
Vyazniki) is a former Soviet cosmonaut who flew on two missions in the Soyuz
programme as a flight engineer: Soyuz 6 and Soyuz 19 (the Apollo-Soyuz mission),
and commanded Soyuz 36 in the Intercosmos programme. On 21 July 1975, the Soyuz
7K-TM module used for ASTP landed in Kazakhstan at 5:51 p.m. and Kubasov was the
first to exit the craft.
He was also involved in the development of
the Mir space station. He retired from the Soviet space program in March 1993.
He was later deputy director of RKK Energia.
Kubasov seems to have
cheated death twice during his space career. He was part of the crew that was
originally intended to fly Soyuz 2, which was found to have the same faulty
parachute sensor that resulted in Vladimir Komarov's death on Soyuz 1 and was
later launched without a crew. Later, he was grounded for medical reasons before
the Soyuz 11 flight, which killed the crew when the capsule was accidentally
depressurised by a faulty valve.
1998 Cold War (in person), 1980 Target... Earth (Other)
MAJOR GENERAL ALEXEI LEONOV
Born: May 30, 1934 in Kemerovo Oblast, USSR
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov was born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, Kemerovo
Oblast, Soviet Union, is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut and Air Force Major
General who, on 18 March 1965, became the first human to conduct an
extra-vehicular activity (EVA), also known as a space walk.
Leonov was one of the 20 Soviet Air Force pilots selected to be part of the
first cosmonaut group in 1960. Like all the Soviet cosmonauts Leonov was a
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. His walk in space was
originally to have taken place on the Vostok 11 mission, but this was cancelled,
and the historic event happened on the Voskhod 2 flight instead. He was outside
the spacecraft for 12 minutes and nine seconds on 18 March 1965, connected to
the craft by a 5.35-meter tether. At the end of the spacewalk, Leonov's
spacesuit had inflated in the vacuum of space to the point where he could not
re-enter the airlock. He opened a valve to allow some of the suit's pressure to
bleed off, and was barely able to get back inside the capsule. Leonov had spent
some eighteen months undergoing intensive weightlessness training for the