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PRESIDENT CARLOS MANUEL PERFECTO DEL CARMEN DE CESPEDES Y LOPEZ DEL CASTILLO (CUBA) - DOCUMENT SIGNED CO-SIGNED BY: GENERAL PEDRO FELIPE FIGUEREDO CISNEROS - HFSID 218140

 

CARLOS MANUEL PERFECTO DEL CARMEN DE CESPEDES Y LOPEZ DEL CASTILLO and PEDRO FELIPE FIGUEREDO CISNEROS
The Father of the Cuban Nation and Secretary of War sign an non-transferable patent that authorizes a person to arm and crew vessels with the flag of Cuba and to attack any other vessel hoisting the Spanish flag.
Document Signed: "C Ma. Cespedes" and "Pedro Figueredo" in iron gall ink. 15½x13¾. Printed translation fully in English: "Carlos Maria de Cespedes, President of the Republic of Cuba. The Chief General of the Cuban Liberation Army, using the authority given by the revolution powers, issues this war campaign patent letter in favor of (blank space) who in virtue of the present, is authorized to arm one or more vessels and apprehend the ones from the enemy in the sea, and once in possession of one or some of those vessels, the C. (blank space) will proceed to provide them with crew and armament under his mandate, which strength and crew will consist, at least, of the third part of the Cubans and two thirds of aliens. Once a vessel is armed and crewed, the C. (blank space) will proceed with the operations of the war campaign under the flag of Cuba, against every vessel that hoist the Spanish flag, strictly fasting to the international laws established and recognized by the civilized nations. Dated with my signature and seal on (blank space). The Chief General of the Liberation Army (crossed out). The President C Ma Cespedes. The War Secretary Pedro Figueredo. This patent is personal and non-transferable. The C. (blank space) will communicate this government his operations in every given opportunity." Carlos Manuel Perfecto del Carmen de Cespedes y Lopez del Castillo (1819-1874), was a landowner and lawyer in eastern Cuba, near Bayamo. In 1843 he participated in the general insurrection of General Juan Prim, reason for which he was exiled to France. Later, he traveled to England, Switzerland, Turkey, Greece, Germany and Italy and could learn various languages such as english, french and italian. In addition, he knew latin and greek since he was a little boy. In 1844 after returning from Spain, where he acquired his doctor's degree, he purchase "La Demajagua", an estate with a sugar plantation and on that same year he opened a lawyer office and wrote poems and a pamphlet in which he makes a defense of Cuba. Carlos Manuel secretly started his plans for the Cuban independence. Besides that, De Cespedes not only translated into Spanish some chants of the "Eneida" that never published but also wrote the comedy "Las dos Dianas". The music of the first known Cuban love song "La Bayamesa" was composed by Carlos Manuel himself and Francisco Castillo Moreno. That song was used by the Cuban patriots, who modified its lyrics and turned it into a combative song against Spain. In 1852 Carlos Manuel participated in the rebellion of Las Pozas and was sent to jail due to his political attitude against Spain and had his uncle Lucas del Castillo and poet Jose Fornaris y Cespedes as cellmates. He returned to prison two more times, and in the course of all that time he continued writing poems and doing translations. All this happened during the first and second period of Cuban General Captain Gutierrez de la Concha. Carlos Manuel was a music and poetry lover who also practiced swordplay, equitation and chess, and since he conspired in the Society of Recreo and in the masonic lodge of his natal city, he was exiled twice. In 1856 he was distinguished as a prominent lawyer and business man in the city of Manzanilla, where he moved in and ten years later his literary production was abundant and varied, and on December 7, 1866 he wrote the poem "La Conchita". The newly founded Masonic Lodge of Bayamo, called "Estrella Tropical No. 19" (Tropical Star no. 19) had a meeting in august and Francisco Vicente Aguilera was given the title of "Venerable Master", but in the reality, he was presiding an insurrectional committee. The next reunion took place in the house of Pedro "Perucho" Figueredo. On that occasion, Figueredo sat at the piano and composed the music for the National Anthem. The Committee of Bayano was formed and auscultated Holguin, Santiago, Camaguey and Las Villas. De Cespedes y Lopez del Castillo was the leader in the conspiracy of Manzanillo and on October 10, 1868 he made the "Grito de Yara"(Cry of Yara) declaring the independence of Cuba, which led in the Ten Year's War. That same morning, after sounding the slave bell that indicated his slaves it was time to start working, they stood before him waiting for orders but instead of that he surprisingly informed them they were free men, and also invited them to join him and his fellow conspirators in the war against the Spanish government of Cuba. The Ten Year's War was the first serious attempt to achieve independence from the Spaniards and to free all slaves. With the discrepancies of the rebel leaders, especially the ones of Camaguey, the Constitution of Guaimaro redacted by Ignacio Agramonte and Antonio Zambrana was proclaimed on April 10, 1869 and once approved by everyone, the Republic of Cuba in Arms was born, and the political differences among the leaders of Camaguey, Bayamo and Manzanillo disappeared. During the Assembly of Guaimaro, Cespedes was chosen as the First President of the Republic of Cuba in Arms and he continued battling until the slavery was abolished. Salvador Cisneros Betancourt presided the Chamber of Representatives and Manuel Quesada y Loynaz was named Chief of Army. The Chamber had faculties to destitute both, the President and the Military Chief. Carlos Manuel aspired to the total and absolute independence of Cuba but Cisneros Betancourt inclined for the north American annexation. The errant government in arms was first established in Guaimaro, but the Spaniards dislodged it soon and had to move to Berrocal, Sabanilla and Magaramba. The Chamber of Representatives objected the attitudes of Manuel de Quesada and deposed him. De Cespedes tried to have his resignation accepted instead of being destitute but they denied him so, and was sent to New York in an official mission. His son Oscar was made prisoner by the Spanish troops and the general Caballero de Rodas sent a message to Carlos Manuel saying that he would free his son if he stopped his fighting for the independence. It is legendary the response that De Cespedes gave him, he said: "Tell general Caballero de Rodas that Oscar is not my only child: I am the father of all the Cubans who have died for the Revolution". For that reason, Cubans consider him as the Father of the Nation. Carlos Manuel was deposed in 1873 in a leadership coup and the Spanish troops killed him in February 1874 in a mountain refuge, as the new Cuban would not let him go into exile and denied him an escort. The war ended in 1878 with the Pact of Zanjon, which did some concessions: liberation of all slaves and Chinese who had fought with the rebels and no action for political offenses; but did not grant freedom for slaves and no independence. The Cry of Yara had achieved something, though, not enough, but it had lit a long-burning fuse. Lessons learned there were later put to good use in the Cuban War of Independence. Pedro Felipe Figueredo Cisneros (1818-1870) also known as "Perucho" was born in Bayamo and is considered a Cuban of the greater revolutionary lineage and as one of the shiniest figures of the Cuban wars for the independence. In La Habana he enrolled in the College of Saint Christopher, where the Cuban revolutionary Jose Antonio Saco was his teacher, and in 1840 he graduated as a bachelor in law, studies that three years later he finished at the University of Barcelona, Spain. On that same year and after traveling for different European cities he went back to his natal city, where he installed a law office and married Isabel Vazquez Moreno. Figueredo Cisneros resigned to his profession as a lawyer because he was unmotivated for living in a corrupted political environment in which the human rights and justice were ignored and also because he could not perform with proper decorum. Therefore, he decided to dedicate his time to sing and also to the study of music and literature, given his artistic vocations. Pedro Figueredo always had an idealistic mind and a passionate heart, he loved his wife and fatherland to the extreme and prohibited his foremen to inflict the merciless punishment to the slaves, and even tried to give them more food and better conditions. He denounced the incapacity of a mayor and got incarcerated and his goods confiscated. In 1851 he was involved in the execution of Narciso Lopez and in the fusillade of Joaquin de Aguero, and had to move to La Habana, where he founded the diary "Correo de la Tarde" (Evening Mail). His house in Bayamo was the place where the first revolutionary assembly of Oriente took place in 1867 and where the main preparations for the raising were made, they didn't conclude until the action of October 10, 1868. Carlos Mnauel is also known for being the author of the lyrics and music of the Cuban National Anthem "La Bayanesa"; the lyrics of this anthem have the singularity that were written from the rump of his horse when he victoriously entered in Bayamo, the anthem was introduced to the public on October 20, 1868. He was designated as Sub-Secreatry of War and Mayor General of the Liberation Army during the Assembly of Guaimaro on April 10, 1869. When the people of Bayamo decided to burn the city to avoid its falling in Spanish hands, Carlos Manuel ran away to the mountain where he contracted typhus and his feet got ulcerated. His one time collaborator Luis Tamayo betrayed him and informed the Spaniards of his whereabouts, so almost defenseless he was captured and made prisoner in the camp of Santa Rosa, Cabaiguan, Tunas on August 12, 1870. After his arrival to the prison of Santiago he was condemned to death by a military tribunal. Sick and exhausted he was murdered on August 17, 1870. However, he faced off the death as the dignified revolutionary he was and refused to kneel before his killers. Lightly soiled and wrinkled. Normal mailing folds. Otherwise, fine condition.


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PRESIDENT CARLOS MANUEL PERFECTO DEL CARMEN DE CESPEDES Y LOPEZ DEL CASTILLO (CU   GENERAL PEDRO FELIPE FIGUEREDO CISNEROS  


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PRESIDENT CARLOS MANUEL PERFECTO DEL CARMEN DE CESPEDES Y LOPEZ DEL CASTILLO (CUBA)
Born: April 18, 1819 in Bayamo, Cuba
Died: February 27, 1874 in Sierra Maestra, Cuba





GENERAL PEDRO FELIPE FIGUEREDO CISNEROS
Born: February 18, 1818 in Bayamo, Cuba
Died: August 17, 1870 in Santiago de Cuba





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