|COLONEL CHARLES PRECOURT|
Born: June 29, 1955 in Waltham, Massachusetts
Charles J. Precourt (Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Retired)
PERSONAL DATA: Born June 29, 1955, in Waltham, Massachusetts, but
considers Hudson, Massachusetts, to be his hometown. Married to the former Lynne
Denise Mungle of St. Charles, Missouri. They have three daughters, Michelle,
Sarah, and Aimee. Precourt enjoys golf and flying light aircraft. He flies a
Varieze, an experimental aircraft that he built. His parents, Charles and Helen
Precourt, reside in Hudson. Her mother, Jerry Mungle, resides in Pearland,
EDUCATION: Graduated from Hudson High School, Hudson, Massachusetts,
in 1973; received a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering from
the United States Air Force Academy in 1977, a master of science degree in
engineering management from Golden Gate University in 1988, and a master of arts
degree in national security affairs and strategic studies from the United States
Naval War College in 1990. While at the United States Air Force Academy,
Precourt also attended the French Air Force Academy in 1976 as part of an
exchange program. Fluent in French and Russian.
ORGANIZATIONS: Vice President of the Association of Space Explorers;
Associate Fellow of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots (SETP), and member
of the Experimental Aircraft Association.
SPECIAL HONORS: Military decorations include: the Legion of Merit,
the Defense Superior Service Medal (2); the Distinguished Flying Cross and the
Air Force Meritorious Service Medal (2). Distinguished graduate of the United
States Air Force Academy and the United States Naval War College. In 1978 he was
the Air Training Command Trophy Winner as the outstanding graduate of his pilot
training class. In 1989 he was recipient of the David B. Barnes Award as the
Outstanding Instructor Pilot at the United States Air Force Test Pilot School.
NASA awards include: the NASA Distinguished Service Medal; the Exceptional
Service Medal and Outstanding Leadership Medal; and the NASA Space Flight Medal
EXPERIENCE: Precourt graduated from Undergraduate Pilot Training at
Reese Air Force Base, Texas, in 1978. Initially he flew as an instructor pilot
in the T-37, and later as a maintenance test pilot in the T-37 and T-38
aircraft. From 1982 through 1984, he flew an operational tour in the F-15 Eagle
at Bitburg Air Base in Germany. In 1985 he attended the United States Air Force
Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Upon graduation,
Precourt was assigned as a test pilot at Edwards, where he flew the F-15E, F-4,
A-7, and A-37 aircraft until mid 1989, when he began studies at the United
States Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. Upon graduation from the War
College, Precourt joined the astronaut program. His flight experience includes
over 7,500 hours in over 60 types of civil and military aircraft. He holds
commercial pilot, multi-engine instrument, glider and certified flight
instructor ratings. Precourt retired from the Air Force on March 31,
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in January 1990, Precourt became
an astronaut in July 1991. His other technical assignments to date have
included: Manager of ascent, entry, and launch abort issues for the Astronaut
Office Operations Development Branch; spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM),
providing the voice link from the Mission Control Center during launch and entry
for several Space Shuttle missions; Director of Operations for NASA at the
Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, from October 1995 to
April 1996, with responsibility for the coordination and implementation of
mission operations activities in the Moscow region for the joint U.S./Russian
Shuttle/Mir program. From May 1996 to September 1998, he served as Acting
Assistant Director (Technical), Johnson Space Center. From October 1998 through
November 2002, Precourt was Chief of the Astronaut Corps, responsible for the
mission preparation activities of all space shuttle and future International
Space Station crews and their support personnel. In his final assignment he was
the Deputy Manager for the International Space Station, responsible for the
day-to-day management of ISS operations, on orbit assembly and the interfaces
with NASA contractors and the International Partners. A veteran of four space
flights, he has logged over 932 hours in space. He served as a mission
specialist on STS-55 (April 26 to May 6, 1993), was the pilot on STS-71 (June 27
to July 7, 1995), and was the spacecraft commander on STS-84 (May 15-24, 1997)
and STS-91 (June 2-12, 1998), the final scheduled Shuttle-Mir docking
mission, concluding the joint U.S./Russian Phase I Program. Precourt left NASA
in March 2005 and is now working for Thiokol in Utah.
SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-55 Columbia launched from
Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on April 26, 1993. Nearly 90 experiments were
conducted during this German-sponsored Spacelab D-2 mission to investigate life
sciences, materials sciences, physics, robotics, astronomy and the Earth and its
atmosphere. STS-55 also flew the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) making
contact with students in 14 schools around the world. After 160 orbits of the
earth in 240 flight hours, the 10-day mission concluded with a landing on Runway
22 at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on May 6, 1993.
STS-71 (June 27 to July 7, 1995) was the first Space Shuttle mission to dock
with the Russian Space Station Mir, and involved an exchange of crews
(seven-member crew at launch, eight-member crew on return). The
Atlantis Space Shuttle was modified to carry a docking system
compatible with the Russian Mir Space Station. It also carried a
Spacehab module in the payload bay in which the crew performed various life
sciences experiments and data collections. STS-71 Atlantis launched
from and returned to land at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Mission duration
was 235 hours, 23 minutes.
STS-84 Atlantis (May 15-24, 1997) carried a seven-member
international crew. This was NASA's sixth Shuttle mission to rendezvous and
dock with the Russian Space Station Mir. During the 9-day flight, the
crew conducted a number of secondary experiments and transferred nearly 4 tons
of supplies and experiment equipment between the Space Shuttle and the
Mir station. STS-84 Atlantis launched from and returned to
land at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Mission duration was 221 hours and 20
STS-91 Discovery (June 2-12, 1998) was the 9th and final
Shuttle-Mir docking mission and marked the conclusion of the highly
successful joint U.S./Russian Phase I Program. The crew, including a Russian
cosmonaut, performed logistics and hardware resupply of the Mir during
four docked days. They also conducted the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer
experiment, which involved the first of its kind research of antimatter in
space. Mission duration was 235 hours, 54 minutes.
Born: August 5, 1951 in Überlingen, Germany
Born 3 August 1951 in Ãœberlingen, Germany, but considers Aachen to be his
hometown. Married to Heike Walpot. He has seven children. Recreational interests
include skiing, scuba diving and flying. He also enjoys reading, and being a
He spent 1968/69 in the US as an American Field Service (AFS) exchange
student and graduated from Lewis Central High School, Council Bluffs, Iowa. In
1970 he graduated from Hansa Gymnasium, a secondary school emphasizing
mathematics and science at Cologne, Germany. In 1979 he received a Diploma in
Physics (Master of Physics) from the University of Aachen, Germany.
Member of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (German Physical Society)
and of the AFS - Interkulturelle Begegnungen (American Field Service Germany).
Verdienstkreuz 1. Klasse des Verdienstordens der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
(Federal Service Cross 1st Class, Federal Republic of Germany). Russian Medal of
From 1970-72, he served as a paratrooper with the Federal Armed Forces. He
left with the rank of second lieutenant, and after several reserve trainings, he
was appointed reserve lieutenant in 1980. From 1979-86 he worked as an
experimental Solid State Physicist at the Rheinisch WestfÃ¤lische Technische
Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen (University of Aachen) and performed research in the
field of electronic transport properties and optical properties of
semiconductors. From 1986-88 he was a Specialist in non-destructive testing
methodology in the research and development department of the company
â€œInstitut Dr. FÃ¶rster Gmbh & Co. KGâ€ in Reutlingen, Germany.
From 1988 to 1990 he performed Basic Astronaut Training at the German
Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR). This training included academic
education and microgravity experience on approximately 1300 parabulas on KC-135.
He became a certified research diver and holds a Private Pilot's license,
including instrument rating and aerobatics.
In 1990 he was assigned payload specialist for the D-2 Mission and started
Payload Training in Cologne, Germany and at the Johnson Space Center in Houston,
Texas. This second German Spacelab mission successfully took place from 26 April
to 6 May 1993 (STS-55 Columbia).
In August 1995 he went to the Yuri A. Gagarin Training Center (Moscow) to
train for the German-Russian MIRâ€˜97 Mission as a backup. During the mission
(10 February to 2 March 1997) he served as Crew Interface Coordinator
responsible for ground-to-air communications. Between June 1997 and January
1998, he received additional training and certification as 2nd board engineer
for the Russian Space Station MIR.
In 1998 he joined the European Astronaut Corps of the European Space Agency.
In August 1998, ESA sent him to the Johnson Space Center for training as a
Mission Specialist with the NASA Astronaut Class of '98. In addition to his
training he was also assigned to the CAPCOM Branch of the Astronaut Office,
conducting voice communication to the International Space Station, he worked as
lead ISS CAPCOM and as ISS Instructor CAPCOM.
In July 2006 Hans Schlegel was assigned to the STS-122 mission that delivered
the European Space Agency's Columbus Laboratory to the International Space
From 26 April to 6 May 1993, Schlegel served as Payload Specialist on STS-55
aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. Nearly 90 experiments were conducted during the
German Spacelab D-2 mission to investigate life sciences, material sciences,
physics, robotics, astronomy, and the Earth and its atmosphere.
His second spaceflight the STS-122 mission launched on 7 February 2008 aboard
Atlantis and ended on 20 February 2008. The mission highlight was the delivery
and installation of the Columbus Module, the major contributing element of the
European Space Agency to the International Space Station. Hans Schlegel
performed one spacewalk (Extravehicular Activity-EVA) of nearly 7 hours to help
prepare the Columbus laboratory for its scientific work, and to replace an
expended nitrogen tank on the Station's P-1 Truss. STS-122 mission was also a
crew replacement mission, delivering ESA astronaut LÃ©opold Eyharts to the ISS.
COLONEL JERRY L. ROSS
Born: January 20, 1948 in Crown Point, Indiana
Jerry L. Ross (Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Retired)
Johnson Space Center
PERSONAL DATA: Born January 20, 1948, in Crown Point, Indiana. He is
married to the former Karen S. Pearson of Sheridan, Indiana. They have two
children. He enjoys genealogy, traveling, photography, stained glass,
woodworking and model rocketry. His parents, Donald J. Ross and Phyllis E.
(Dillabaugh) Ross, are deceased. Karen's parents, Morris D. and Wilma Pearson,
reside in Sheridan, Indiana.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Crown Point High School, Crown Point,
Indiana, in 1966; received Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees in
Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University in 1970 and 1972,
ORGANIZATIONS: Lifetime Member of the Association of Space
Explorers, the Purdue Alumni Association and the Clan Ross Association of the
USA. He currently serves on the Board of Directors of the Association of Space
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded two Defense Superior Service Medals, the Air
Force Legion of Merit, four Defense Meritorious Service Medals, two Air Force
Meritorious Service Medals and the National Intelligence Medal of Achievement.
He was a Distinguished Graduate of the USAF Test Pilot School and the recipient
of the Outstanding Flight Test Engineer Award, Class 75B. Ross received 15 NASA
medals. He was awarded the American Astronautical Society's Victor A. Prather
Award for spacewalking achievements (1985, 1990 and 1999) and the Flight
Achievement Award (1992, 1996, 1999 and 2002). Ross received an Honorary Doctor
of Science degree from Purdue University in 2000 and the Distinguished
Engineering Alumnus Award from Purdue University in 2004. His home town school
system has named an elementary school in his honor.
AIR FORCE EXPERIENCE: Ross, an Air Force ROTC student at Purdue
University, received his commission upon graduation in 1970. After receiving his
master's degree from Purdue in 1972, he entered active duty with the Air Force
and was assigned to the Ramjet Engine Division of the Air Force Aero-Propulsion
Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. He conducted computer-aided
design studies on ramjet propulsion systems, served as the project engineer for
captive tests of a supersonic ramjet missile using a rocket sled track and
served as the project manager for preliminary configuration development of the
ASALM strategic air-launched missile. From June 1974 to July 1975, he was the
Laboratory Executive Officer and Chief of the Management Operations Office. Ross
graduated from the USAF Test Pilot School's Flight Test Engineer Course in 1976
and was subsequently assigned to the 6510th Test Wing at Edwards Air Force Base,
California. While on assignment to the 6510th's Flight Test Engineering
Directorate, he was project engineer on a limited flying qualities evaluation of
the RC-135S aircraft and, as lead B-1 flying qualities flight test engineer, he
was responsible for the stability and control and flight control system testing
performed on the B-1 aircraft. He was also responsible, as chief B-1 flight test
engineer, for training and supervising all Air Force B-1 flight test engineer
crewmembers and for performing mission planning for the B-1 offensive avionics
Ross has flown in 21 different types of aircraft, holds a private pilot's
license and has logged more than 4,100 flying hours, the majority in military
aircraft. He retired from the Air Force on March 31, 2000.
NASA EXPERIENCE: In February 1979, Ross was assigned by the Air
Force to the Payload Operations Division at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center
as a payload officer/flight controller, responsible for the flight operations
integration of military payloads into the Space Shuttle. Ross was selected as an
astronaut in May 1980. His technical assignments since then have included EVA
(spacewalks); Robotics; Space Shuttle Landing Chase Team; support crewman for
STS-41B, 41C and 51A; spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) during STS-41B, 41C, 41D,
51A and 51D; Chief of the Mission Support Branch; member of the 1990 Astronaut
Selection Board; Acting Deputy Chief of the Astronaut Office; Chief of the
Astronaut Office EVA and Robotics Branch and Astronaut Office Branch Chief for
Kennedy Space Center Operations Support. From 2004 to 2007, he served as the
Chief Astronaut of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC).
Ross flew as a mission specialist on STS-61B (1985), STS-27 (1988) and STS-37
(1991); was the Payload Commander on STS-55/Spacelab-D2 (1993); and served as a
mission specialist on the second Space Shuttle to rendezvous and dock with the
Russian Space Station Mir, STS-74 (1995), the first International Space Station
(ISS) assembly mission, STS-88 (1998) and on another Space Station assembly
mission, STS-110 (2002). A veteran of seven space flights, Ross has more than
1,393 hours in space, including 58 hours and 18 minutes of EVA on nine
spacewalks. He was the first human to be launched into space seven times. These
seven flights comprise a world record that Ross now shares with one other NASA
astronaut. Both his number of and time on spacewalks are all time second highest
among NASA astronauts.
Ross served as Chief of the Vehicle Integration Test Office at the Johnson
Space Center from 2003 through 2011. He retired from NASA in January
SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-61B was launched at night from Kennedy
Space Center (KSC), Florida, on November 26, 1985. During the mission, the crew
deployed the MORELOS-B, AUSSAT II and SATCOM Ku-2 communications satellites and
operated numerous experiments inside the Space Shuttle. Ross conducted two
6-hour spacewalks to demonstrate Space Station construction techniques with the
EASE/ACCESS experiments. After completing 108 orbits of the Earth in 165 hours,
4 minutes and 49 seconds, STS-61B Atlantis landed on Runway 22 at Edwards Air
Force Base, California, on December 3, 1985.
STS-27 Atlantis launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on December
2, 1988. The mission carried a Department of Defense payload as well as a number
of secondary payloads. After 68 orbits of the Earth in 105 hours, 6 minutes and
19 seconds, the mission concluded with a dry lakebed landing on Runway 17 at
Edwards Air Force Base, California, on December 6, 1988.
STS-37 Atlantis launched from KSC on April 5, 1991, and deployed the
35,000-pound Gamma Ray Observatory, the heaviest civilian satellite ever
launched by a Shuttle and the second of NASA's four â€œgreat observatories.â€
Ross performed two spacewalks totaling 10 hours and 49 minutes to manually
deploy the obstructed Gamma Ray Observatory antenna and to test prototype Space
Station EVA hardware. After 93 orbits of the Earth in 143 hours, 32 minutes and
44 seconds, the mission concluded with a landing on Runway 33 at Edwards Air
Force Base on April 11, 1991.
From April 26, 1993, to May 6, 1993, Ross served as Payload Commander/Mission
Specialist on STS-55 aboard the Orbiter Columbia. The mission launched from
Kennedy Space Center and landed at Edwards Air Force Base, Runway 22, after 160
orbits of the Earth in 239 hours and 45 minutes. Nearly 90 experiments were
conducted during the German-sponsored Spacelab D-2 mission to investigate life
sciences, material sciences, physics, robotics, astronomy and the Earth and its
STS-74 was NASA's second Space Shuttle mission to rendezvous and dock with
the Russian Space Station Mir. STS-74 launched on November 12, 1995, and landed
at Kennedy Space Center on November 20, 1995. During the 8-day flight the crew
aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis attached a permanent docking module to Mir,
conducted a number of secondary experiments and transferred 3,000 pounds of
supplies and experiment equipment between Atlantis and the Mir station. The
STS-74 mission was accomplished in 129 orbits of the Earth, with Atlantis
traveling 3.4 million miles in 196 hours, 30 minutes and 44 seconds.
STS-88 Endeavour (December 4 to December 15, 1998) was the first ISS assembly
mission. During the 12-day mission, the U.S.-built Unity module was mated with
the orbiting, unmanned Russian Zarya module. Ross performed three spacewalks
totaling 21 hours and 22 minutes to connect umbilicals and attach tools and
hardware to the exterior of the core modules of the ISS. The crew also deployed
two small satellites, Mighty Sat 1 and SAC-A. The mission was accomplished in
185 orbits of the Earth in 283 hours and 18 minutes.
STS-110 Atlantis (April 8-19, 2002) was the 13th Shuttle mission to visit the
ISS. This, the first mission in the final phase of the ISS assembly, included
the delivery and installation of the S0 (S-Zero) Truss, the first use of the
station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the station and the first
time that all of the spacewalks performed on a Shuttle mission were based from
the Station's Quest Airlock. Ross performed two EVAs totaling 14 hours and 9
minutes. Mission duration was 259 hours and 42 minutes, with 171 orbits of the
Ross supported the Space Shuttle Program as an Astronaut from before the
first launch in April 1981 to the last landing in July 2011. He also supported
the International Space Station Program from its inception through the
completion of assembly of the ISS in 2011.
COLONEL TERENCE HENRICKS
Born: July 5, 1952 in Bryan, Ohio
Terence T. "Tom" Henricks (Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Retired)
PERSONAL DATA: Born July 5, 1952, in Bryan, Ohio, but considers
Woodville, Ohio, to be his hometown. Married to the former Rebecca Grantham of
Marshall, Texas. Three children.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Woodmore High School in 1970; received a
bachelor of science degree in civil engineering from the United States Air Force
(USAF) Academy in 1974, and a masters degree in public administration from
Golden Gate University in 1982.
SPECIAL HONORS: The Distinguished Flying Cross, the NASA Outstanding
Leadership Medal, the Defense Superior Service Medal, the Defense Meritorious
Service Medal, two Air Force Meritorious Service Medals, two Air Force
Commendation Medals, four NASA Space Flight Medals, Honorary Doctor of Science
degree from the Defiance College (1993), F-4 Fighter Weapons School Outstanding
Flying Award. Named Pilot Training Distinguished Graduate and F-16 Conversion
Course Top Gun. Inducted into the Ohio Veterans Hall of Fame.
EXPERIENCE: Henricks completed pilot training at Craig Air Force
Base (AFB) in Selma, Alabama, and F-4 conversion training at Homestead AFB in
Miami, Florida. He then flew the F-4 in fighter squadrons in England and
Iceland. In 1980, he was reassigned to Nellis AFB, Las Vegas, Nevada. After
attending the USAF Test Pilot School in 1983, he remained at Edwards AFB,
California, as an F-16C test pilot and Chief of the 57th Fighter Weapons Wing
Operating Location until his NASA selection. He has 749 parachute jumps and a
Master Parachutist rating. He has flown 30 different types of aircraft, has
logged over 6,000 hours flying time, and holds an FAA commercial pilot
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in June 1985, Henricks became an
astronaut in July 1986. His technical assignments to date include: re-evaluating
Shuttle landing sites world wide; Assistant Manager for Engineering Integration
in the Shuttle Program Office; Lead Astronaut of the Shuttle Avionics
Integration Laboratory at Johnson Space Center, and of Vehicle Test and Checkout
at the Kennedy Space Center; Chief of the Astronaut Office Operations
Development Branch. He also served as the Assistant for Shuttle to the Chief of
the Astronaut Office, directing crew involvement in the development and
operation of the Shuttle. A commander of two Space Shuttle missions and pilot of
two others, Henricks became the first person to log over 1,000 hours as a Space
Shuttle pilot/commander. Tom Henricks left government service in November 1997
to pursue a career in business.
SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-44 Atlantis launched the night
of November 24, 1991. The primary mission objective was the deployment of a
Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite with an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)
rocket booster. The mission was concluded after 110 orbits of the Earth
returning to a landing on the lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on
December 1, 1991.
STS-55, the German D-2 Spacelab mission, was launched on April 26, 1993,
aboard Columbia, and landed 10-days later on May 6, 1993, at Edwards AFB
California. During the ambitious mission 89 experiments were performed in many
disciplines such as materials processing, life sciences, robotics, technology,
astronomy, and Earth mapping.
STS-70 launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on July 13, 1995, and
returned there July 22, 1995. During 142 orbits of the Earth, the crew performed
a variety of experiments in addition to deploying the sixth and final NASA
Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. STS-70, with an "all-Ohio" crew, was the
first mission controlled from the new combined control center.
STS-78 launched June 20, 1996 and landed July 7, 1996 becoming the longest
Space Shuttle mission to date. The 16-day mission included studies sponsored by
ten nations and five space agencies, and was the first mission to combine both a
full microgravity studies agenda and a comprehensive life science investigation.
The Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission served as a model for future studies
on board the International Space Station.
COLONEL STEVE NAGEL
Born: October 27, 1946 in Canton, Illinois
Died: August 21, 2014 in Columbia, Missouri
Steven R. Nagel (Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Retired)
PERSONAL DATA: Born October 27, 1946, in
Canton, Illinois. Married to Linda M. Godwin of Houston, Texas. Two daughters.
His hobbies include sport flying and astronomy.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Canton Senior High
School, Canton, Illinois, in 1964; received a bachelor of science degree in
aerospace engineering (high honors) from the University of Illinois in 1969 and
a master of science degree in mechanical engineering from California State
University, Fresno, California, in 1978.
ORGANIZATIONS: Order of Daedalians, American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Society of Experimental Test Pilots,
Association of Space Explorers.
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded the Air Force
Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal with 7 Oak Leaf Clusters; for
undergraduate pilot training, recipient of the Commander's Trophy, the Flying
Trophy, the Academic Trophy and the Orville Wright Achievement Award (Order of
Daedalians). Also presented the Air Force Meritorious Service Medal (1978).
Recipient of four NASA Space Flight Medals (1985, 1991, 1993); Exceptional
Service Medals (1988, 1989); Outstanding Leadership Medal (1992); AAS Flight
Achievement Award, STS-37 Crew (1992); Outstanding Alumni Award, University of
Illinois (1992); Distinguished Service Medal (1994), Distinguished Alumni Award,
California State University, Fresno (1994) and Lincoln Laureate, State of
EXPERIENCE: Nagel received his commission in
1969 through the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) program at
the University of Illinois. He completed undergraduate pilot training at Laredo
Air Force Base, Texas, in February 1970, and subsequently reported to Luke Air
Force Base, Arizona, for F-100 training.
From October 1970 to July 1971, Nagel was an F-100 pilot with the 68th
Tactical Fighter Squadron at England Air Force Base, Louisiana. He served a
1-year tour of duty as a T-28 instructor for the Laotian Air Force at Udorn
RTAFB, Udorn, Thailand, prior to returning to the United States in October 1972
to assume A-7D instructor pilot and flight examiner duties at England Air Force
Base, Louisiana. Nagel attended the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force
Base, California, from February to December 1975. In January 1976, he was
assigned to the 6512th Test Squadron located at Edwards. As a test pilot, he
worked on various projects, including flying the F-4 and A-7D.
He has logged 12,600 hours flying time; 9,640 hours in jet
NASA EXPERIENCE: Nagel became a NASA astronaut
in August 1979. His technical assignments have included backup Tâ€‘38 chase
pilot for STS-1; support crew and backup entry spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM)
for STS-2; support crew and primary entry CAPCOM for STS-3; software
verification at the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL) and the
Flight Simulation Laboratory (FSL); representative of the Astronaut Office in
the development of a crew escape system for the space shuttle and acting chief
of the astronaut office. Nagel is a veteran of four space flights (STS-51G and
STS-61 in 1985, STS-37 in 1991 and STS-55 in 1993) as described below.
Nagel first flew as a mission specialist on STS-51G, which launched from the
Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on June 17, 1985. The crew aboard the Space
Shuttle Discovery deployed communications satellites for Mexico (Morelos), the
Arab League (Arabsat) and the United States (AT&T Telstar). They used the
Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to deploy and later retrieve the SPARTAN
satellite, which performed 17 hours of x-ray astronomy experiments while
separated from the space shuttle. In addition, the crew activated the Automated
Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF) and six â€œGetaway Specials,â€
participated in biomedical experiments and conducted a laser tracking experiment
as part of the Strategic Defense Initiative. After completing approximately 170
hours of space flight, Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California,
on June 24, 1985.
Nagel then flew as pilot on STS-61A, the West German D-1
Spacelab mission, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on October
30, 1985. This mission was the first in which payload activities were controlled
from outside the United States. More than 75 scientific experiments were
completed in the areas of physiological sciences, materials processing, biology
and navigation. After completing 111 orbits of the Earth, Space Shuttle
Challenger landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on November 6,
On his third flight, Nagel was commander of STS-37, which launched into orbit
on April 5, 1991, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and landed on April 11,
1991, at Edwards Air Force Base, California. During this mission, the crew
aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis deployed the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) for
the purpose of exploring gamma ray sources throughout the universe and conducted
the first scheduled spacewalk in more than 5.5 years. Also, the crew performed
the first successful unscheduled spacewalk to free a stuck antenna on GRO.
Nagel also served as commander of STS-55, the German D-2 Spacelab mission.
After launching on April 26, 1993, on the Shuttle Columbia, the crew landed 10
days later on May 6, 1993, at Edwards Air Force Base, California. During the
ambitious mission, 89 experiments were performed in many disciplines, such as
materials processing, life sciences, robotics, technology, astronomy and earth
With the completion of his fourth flight, Nagel has logged a total of 723
hours in space.
Nagel retired from the Air Force effective February 28, 1995. He retired from
the Astronaut Office effective March 1, 1995, to assume the full-time position
of deputy director for operations development, Safety, Reliability, and Quality
Assurance Office, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. In September 1996, Nagel
transferred to the Aircraft Operations Division where he performed duties as a
research pilot, chief of aviation safety and deputy division chief. He retired
from NASA on May 31, 2011.
Born: February 9, 1954 in Iserlohn, Germany
German Science Astronaut (Payload Specialist)
PERSONAL DATA: Born February 9, 1954, in Iserlohn, Germany. Married.
Two children. He enjoys sports, such as badminton, basketball, and soccer, as
well as pop and classical music, electronics (analog, digital, and HF), and
ORGANIZATIONS: Member, German Physical Society.
PUBLICATIONS: Dr. Walter has some 35 publications in various
international scientific journals. Author of two "Bericht der KFA Jlich"
(Reports of the National Research Laboratory at Julich, Germany).
SPECIAL HONORS: A research fellowship at the University of
California at Berkeley by the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (German
Physical Society), 1986-1987.
RESEARCH ACTIVITIES: Physical Science in the fields of Neutron
Scattering Techniques, Rare Earth Magnetism, High-Tc Superconductivity, and
1960-1964 Primary School in Iserlohn
1964-1972 Mrkisches Gymnasium (secondary school) in Iserlohn.
1974-1980 Studying Physics at the University at Cologne.
1980 Diploma in Experimental Physics. (Special Field: Crystal Field Effects
in metallic systems.
1972-1973 Served as a volunteer with the German Federal Armed Forces.
1973-1974 Lieutenant and instructor at the Army Air-Defense School,
1980-1985 Member of the academic staff at the University of Cologne in the
field of Solid State Physics.
1985 Doctoral Thesis at the University of Cologne in the field of Solid State
1985-1986 Post-doctoral position at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago,
1986-1987 Post-doctoral position at the University of California at Berkley,
Aug 1987 Nominated as a German Science Astronaut.
1988-90 Basic Astronaut Training at DLR.
Sep 1990 Assignment to the German D-2 Mission.
SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: Dr. Walter flew as prime payload specialist
PS-1 on STS-55 Columbia (April 26 to May 6, 1993). STS-55 was launched
from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and returned to land at Edwards Air Force
Base, California. Nearly 90 experiments were conducted during this
German-sponsored Spacelab D-2 mission to investigate life sciences, materials
sciences, physics, robotics, astronomy and the Earth and its atmosphere. STS-55
also flew the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) making contact with
students in 14 schools around the world. At mission conclusion, Dr. Walter had
traveled over 4.1 million miles in 160 Earth orbits, and logged over 239 hours
BERNARD A. HARRIS JR.
Born: June 26, 1956 in Temple, Texas
NAME: Bernard A. Harris, Jr., (M.D.)
PERSONAL DATA: Born June 26, 1956, in Temple,
Texas. Married to the former Sandra Fay Lewis of Sunnyvale, California. They
have one child. He enjoys flying, sailing, skiing, running, scuba diving, art
and music. Bernard's mother, Mrs. Gussie H. Burgess, and his stepfather, Mr. Joe
Roye Burgess, reside in San Antonio, Texas. His father, Mr. Bernard A. Harris,
Sr., resides in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Sandra's parents, Mr. & Mrs. Joe
Reed, reside in Sunnyvale.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Sam Houston High
School, San Antonio, Texas, in 1974; received a bachelor of science degree in
biology from University of Houston in 1978, a doctorate in medicine from Texas
Tech University School of Medicine in 1982. Dr. Harris completed a residency in
internal medicine at the Mayo Clinic in 1985. In addition, he completed a
National Research Council Fellowship at NASA Ames Research Center in 1987, and
trained as a flight surgeon at the Aerospace School of Medicine, Brooks Air
Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, in 1988. Dr. Harris also received a master's
degree in biomedical science from the University of Texas Medical Branch at
Galveston in 1996.
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the American College of
Physicians, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Aerospace Medical
Association, National Medical Association, American Medical Association,
Minnesota Medical Association, Texas Medical Association, Harris County Medical
Society, Phi Kappa Phi Honor Society, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Texas Tech
University Alumni Association, and Mayo Clinic Alumni Association. Aircraft
Owners and Pilot Association. Association of Space Explorers. American
Astronautical Society. Member, Board of Directors, Boys and Girls Club of
Houston. Committee Member, Greater Houston Area Council on Physical Fitness and
Sports. Member, Board of Directors, Manned Space Flight Education Foundation
SPECIAL HONORS: 1996 Honorary Doctorate of Science, Morehouse School
of Medicine. Medal of Excellence, Golden State Minority Foundation 1996. NASA
Award of Merit 1996. NASA Equal Opportunity Medal 1996. NASA Outstanding
Leadership Medal 1996. The Challenger Award, The Ronald E. McNair Foundation 1996.
Award of Achievement, The Association of Black Cardiologists 1996. Space Act
Tech Brief Award 1995. Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society, Zeta of Texas
Chapter 1995. Election of Fellowship in the American College of Physicians 1994.
Distinguished Alumnus, The University of Houston Alumni Organization 1994.
Distinguished Scientist of the Year, ARCS Foundation, Inc., 1994. Life
Membership, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. NASA Space Flight Medals 1993, 1995.
NASA Outstanding Performance Rating 1993. JSC Group Achievement Award 1993.
Physician of the Year, National Technical Association, 1993. Achiever of the
Year, National Technical Association, 1993. American Astronautical Society
Melbourne W. Boynton Award for Outstanding Contribution to Space Medicine 1993.
Achievement Award, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity 1993. Who's Who Among Rising Young
Americans Citation 1992. Certificate of Merit, Governor of Texas 1990. City of
San Antonio Citation for Achievement 1990. NASA Sustained Superior Performance
Award 1989. NASA Outstanding Performance Rating 1988. NASA Sustained Superior
Performance Award 1988, 1989. National Research Council Fellowship 1986, 1987.
Phi Kappa Phi Honor Society 1985. Outstanding Young Men of America 1984.
University of Houston Achievement Award 1978. Achievement Award 1978.
EXPERIENCE: After completing his residency
training in 1985 at the Mayo Clinic, Dr. Harris then completed a National
Research Council Fellowship at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field,
California. While at Ames he conducted research in the field of musculoskeletal
physiology, and disuse osteoporosis, completing his fellowship in 1987. He then
joined NASA Johnson Space Center as a clinical scientist and flight surgeon. His
duties included clinical investigations of space adaptation and the development
of countermeasures for extended duration space flight. Assigned to the Medical
Science Division, he held the title of Project Manager, Exercise Countermeasure
Project. Dr. Harris holds several faculty appointments. He is an associate
professor in internal medicine at the University of Texas Medical Branch; an
assistant professor at the Baylor College of Medicine; a clinical professor at
the University of Texas School of Medicine; and is an adjunct professor at the
University of Texas School of Public Health. He is a member, Board of Regents
for the Texas Tech University Health Science Center in Lubbock, Texas. Fellow,
American College of Physicians. He is the author and co-author of numerous
scientific publications. In addition, Dr. Harris has been in group medical
practice in internal medicine with both the South Texas Primary Care in San
Antonio, Texas, and with the San Jose Medical Group in San Jose, California. Dr.
Harris is also a licensed private pilot.
Selected by NASA in January 1990, Dr. Harris became an astronaut in July
1991. He is qualified for assignment as a mission specialist on future Space
Shuttle flight crews. He served as the crew representative for Shuttle Software
in the Astronaut Office Operations Development Branch. A veteran of two space
flights, Dr. Harris has logged more than 438 hours in space. He was a mission
specialist on STS-55 (April 26 to May 6, 1993), and was the Payload Commander on
STS-63 (February 2-11, 1995).
Dr. Harris was assigned as a mission specialist on STS-55, Spacelab D-2, in
August 1991, and later flew on board Columbia for ten days, (April 26 to
May 6, 1993), marking the Shuttle's one year of total flight time. Dr. Harris
was part of the payload crew of Spacelab D-2, conducting a variety of research
in physical and life sciences. During this flight, Dr. Harris logged over 239
hours and 4,164,183 miles in space.
Most recently, Dr. Harris was the Payload Commander on STS-63 (February 2-11,
1995), the first flight of the new joint Russian-American Space Program. Mission
highlights included the rendezvous with the Russian Space Station, Mir,
operation of a variety of investigations in the Spacehab module, and the
deployment and retrieval of Spartan 204. During the flight, Dr. Harris became
the first African-American to walk in space. He logged 198 hours, 29 minutes in
space, completed 129 orbits, and traveled over 2.9 million miles.
Dr. Harris left NASA in April 1996. He is Chief Scientist and Vice-President
of Science and Health Services.
1996 Last Angel of History (in person)