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APOLLO - SOYUZ CREW - COMMEMORATIVE ENVELOPE SIGNED CO-SIGNED BY: LT. GENERAL THOMAS P. STAFFORD, MAJOR DONALD "DEKE" SLAYTON, VANCE BRAND - HFSID 158131

 
APOLLO-SOYUZ AMERICAN CREW: THOMAS P. STAFFORD, DONALD SLAYTON and VANCE BRAND
Signature of the Americans involved in the first joint United States-Soviet Union space mission
Commemorative Envelope signed: "Tom Stafford", "D.K. Slayton" and "Vance Brand" 6½x3½. Space cover honoring the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). 10¢ stamp affixed at upper right, pictorially postmarked at Norfolk, Virginia, July 24, 1975, APOLLO SOYUZ SPACE MISSION/U.S. NAVY RECOVERY FORCE-ATLANTIC. Rubber-stamped cachet commemorates the U.S. Navy Recovery Force Atlantic. Three American astronauts were launched aboard Apollo and two Soviet cosmonauts aboard Soyuz 19 on July 15, 1975. After linking up in space on July 17th, they conducted experiments, shared meals and held a joint news conference. Soyuz made a soft landing in Russia on July 21, 1975. THOMAS P. STAFFORD (b.1930) was the commander and DONALD SLAYTON (1924-1993) was the docking module pilot of Apollo 18. VANCE BRAND (b.1931) was the command module pilot of Apollo 18. Apollo splashed down in the Atlantic on July 24, 1975, the day this envelope was postmarked. Fine condition.


For more documents by these signers click the names below:

APOLLO - SOYUZ CREW   LT. GENERAL THOMAS P. STAFFORD   MAJOR DONALD SLAYTON   VANCE BRAND  


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LT. GENERAL THOMAS P. STAFFORD
Born: September 17, 1930 in Weatherford, Oklahoma

THOMAS P. STAFFORD, Lieutenant General, USAF (Retired)
NASA ASTRONAUT (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born September 17, 1930, in Weatherford, Oklahoma. Married to the former Linda Ann Dishman of Chelsea, Oklahoma. They have two sons, Michael Thomas and Stanislav Stas Patten. First marriage was to the former Faye L. Shoemaker. They have two daughters, Dionne Kay and Karin Elaine as well as two grandsons, Thomas P. Stafford II and Andrew Alexi Harrison. Linda has two children from a previous marriage, Kassie Neering and Mark Hill, and four grandchildren: Sloane, Lee, Marcus and Tara. He enjoys hunting, scuba diving, fishing and deep sea fishing and swimming.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Weatherford High School, Weatherford, Oklahoma; received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1952. In addition, General Stafford is the recipient of several honorary degrees. These include a doctorate of laws from the University of Cordoba, Argentina, a doctorate of humane letters, University of Oklahoma and a masters of humane letters, Southwestern University, Weatherford, Oklahoma; a doctorate of science from Oklahoma City University; a doctorate of laws, Western State University, Los Angeles California; doctorate of communications, Emerson College, Boston, Massachusetts; a doctorate of aeronautical engineering, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, and a doctorate of humanities, Oklahoma Christian College, Edmond, Oklahoma.

ORGANIZATION: Fellow of the American Astronautical Society, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, and a member of the Masonic Lodge.

SPECIAL HONORS: NASA Distinguished Service Medals (2), NASA Exceptional Service Medals (2), Air Force Distinguished Service Medal with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters, Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross with one Oak Leaf Cluster, Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with one Oak Leaf Cluster, Air Force Commendation Medal, Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings. Other awards include the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Chanute Flight Award, the Veterans of Foreign Wars National Space Award, National Geographic Society's General Thomas D. White USAF Space Trophy, Federation Aeronautique Internationale Gold Space Medal. In 1966, he was co-recipient of the IAAA Award. He was honored with the Harmon International Aviation Trophy in 1966 and 1976. In 1969 he received the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Special Trustees Award and in 1978 the Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce Kitty Hawk Sands of Time Award; received the Society of Experimental Test Pilots James H. Doolittle Award for Management, September 1979, October 1979, received the NASA Medal for outstanding leadership, one of the Agency's highest awards. In 1993 General Stafford was the eighth recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. He was inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame and received the Rotary National Award for Space Achievement (RNASA). He served as the Chairman of the Operations Oversight Committee of the first Hubble Telescope Spacecraft Servicing and Repair Mission that corrected the design and manufacturing defect of the instrument. In 1994, NASA recognized his tremendous efforts and presented him with the NASA Public Service Award for the Hubble Telescope Service and Repair Mission. General Stafford was inducted into the Oklahoma Commerce and Industry Hall of Honor in October 1994, and to the National Aviation Hall of Fame and the Aerospace Walk of Honor in 1997.

EXPERIENCE: General Stafford graduated with honors in 1952 from the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland, and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the United States Air Force. He received his pilot wings at Connally AFB, Waco, Texas, in September 1953. He completed advanced interceptor training and was assigned to the 54th Flight Interceptor Squadron, Ellsworth AFB, Rapid City, South Dakota. In December 1955 he was assigned to the 496th Fighter Interceptor Squadron, Hahn Air Base, Germany, where he performed the duties of pilot, flight leader, and flight test maintenance office, flying F-86Ds. He was an instructor in flight test training and specialized academic subjects-establishing basic textbooks and directing the writing of flight test manuals for use by the staff and students. He is co-author of the Pilot's Handbook for Performance Flight Testing and the Aerodynamics Handbook for Performance Flight Testing.

General Stafford was selected among the second group of astronauts in September 1962 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to participate in Projects Gemini and Apollo. In December 1965, he piloted Gemini VI the first rendezvous in space, and helped develop techniques to prove the basic theory and practicality of space rendezvous. In June 1966 he commanded Gemini IX and performed a demonstration of an early rendezvous that would be used in Apollo, the first optical rendezvous, and a lunar orbit abort rendezvous. From August 1966 to October 1968 he headed the mission planning analysis and software development responsibilities for the astronaut group for Project Apollo.

General Stafford was the lead member of the group, which helped formulate the sequence of missions leading to the first lunar landing mission. He demonstrated and implemented the theory of a pilot manually flying the Saturn booster into orbit and the translunar injection maneuver.

General Stafford was commander of Apollo 10 in May 1969, first flight of the lunar module to the moon, performed the first rendezvous around the Moon, and performed the entire lunar landing mission except the actual landing.

He also made reconnaissance and tracking on future Apollo landing sites. General Stafford was cited in the Guinness Book of World Records for highest speed ever attained by man, that occurred during Apollo 10 reentry when the spacecraft attained 24,791 statute miles per hour.

He was assigned as head of the astronaut group in June 1969, responsible for the selection of flight crews for projects Apollo and Skylab. He reviewed and monitored flight crew training status reports, and was responsible for coordination, scheduling, and control of all activities involving NASA astronauts.

In June 1971, General Stafford was assigned as Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations at the NASA Manned Space flight Center. He was responsible for assisting the director in planning and implementation of programs for the astronaut group, the Aircraft Operations, Flight Crew Integration, Flight Crew Procedures, and Crew Simulation and Training Divisions.

He logged his fourth space flight as Apollo commander of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission, July 15-24, 1975, a joint space flight culminating in the historic first meeting in space between American Astronauts and Soviet Cosmonauts.

General Stafford was the first member of his Naval Academy Class of 1952 to pin on the first, second and third stars of a General Officer. He has flown six rendezvous in space; logged 507 hours and 43 minutes in space flight and wore the Air Force command Pilot Astronaut Wings. He has flown over 127 different types of aircraft and helicopters and four different types of spacecraft.

General Stafford assumed command of the Air Force Flight Test Center November 4, 1975. He was promoted to the grade of Major General August 9, 1975, with date of rank of June 1, 1973.

Gen. Stafford was promoted Lt. Gen. on March 15, 1978 and on May 1, 1978 assumed the duties as the Deputy Chief of Staff, Research, Development and Acquisition, HQ USAF, Wash., DC. During this time Gen. Stafford was personally involved in initiating the F-117A Stealth Fighter. In early 1979, he wrote the initial desired specifications on and started the advanced technology bomber development, now designated the B-2 Stealth Bomber. Gen. Stafford retired from the Air Force in November 1979.

In June of 1990, Vice President Quayle and Admiral Richard Truly, then NASA Administrator, asked General Stafford to Chair a team to independently advise NASA how to carry out President Bush's vision of returning to the Moon, this time to stay, and then go on to explore Mars. General Stafford assembled teams of 40 full-time and 150 part-time members from the DOD, DOE and NASA, and completed the study called "America at the Threshold", a road map for the next 30 years of the U.S. Manned Space Flight Program. General Stafford and Vice President Quayle held a joint Press Conference at the White House in June 1991 to announce the recommendations to the public. The Clinton Administration directed a review of all federally-funded research and development plans of the Executive Branch in 1994. Gen. Stafford chaired the committee to review and make recommendations to enhance the efficiency of the R&D initiatives of the NASA Human Exploration Enterprise that included JSC, KSC, MSFC and SSFC.

He co-founded the Technical Consulting Firm of Stafford, Burke, and Hecker, Inc. in Alexandria, Virginia. He sits on the Board of Directors of six corporations listed on the New York Stock Exchange, one listed on the American Exchange, and two others, including Seagate Technology, Inc. Seagate Technology is the largest independent hard disk drive maker in the world. He has served as an advisor to a number of governmental agencies including NASA and the Air Force Systems Command. He was a defense advisor to Ronald Reagan during the presidential campaign and a member of the Reagan transition team. He served on the National Research Council's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; the Committee on NASA Scientific and Technological Program Reviews and Vice President Quayle's Space Policy Advisory Council. He was Chairman of the NASA Advisory Council Task Force on Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions, is currently Chairman of the NASA Advisory Council Task Force on ISS Operational Readiness, and Co-Chairman of the Stafford-Covey Space Shuttle Return to Flight Task Group.




MAJOR DONALD SLAYTON
Born: March 1, 1924 in Sparta, Wisconsin
Died: June 13, 1993 in League City, Texas


Deke Slayton (Mr.)
NASA Astronaut (Deceased)

PERSONAL DATA: Born March 1, 1924, in Sparta, Wisconsin. Died June 13, 1993. He is survived by wife, Bobbie, and son, Kent.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Sparta High School; received a bachelor of science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1949.

ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots and the American Astronautical Society; associate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; member of the Experimental Aircraft Association, the Space Pioneers, and the Confederate Air Force; life member of the Order of Daedalians, the National Rifle Association of America, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, and the Fraternal Order of Eagles; honorary member of the American Fighter Aces Association, and the National WWII Glider Pilots Association.

SPECIAL HONORS: NASA Distinguished Service Medal (3); NASA Exceptional Service Medal; the Collier Trophy; the SETP Iven C. Kincheloe Award; the Gen. Billy Mitchell Award; the SEPT J.H. Doolittle Award (1972); the National Institute of Social Sciences Gold Medal (1975); the Zeta Beta Tau's Richard Gottheil Medal (1975); the Wright Brothers International Manned Space Flight Award (1975); the Veterans of Foreign Wars National Space Award (1976); the American Heart Association's Heart of the Year Award (1976); the District 35-R Lions International American of the Year Award (1976); the AIAA Special Presidential Citation (1977); the University of Minnesota's Outstanding Achievement Award (1977); the Houston Area Federal Business Association's Civil Servant of the Year Award (1977); the AAS Flight Achievement Award for 1976 (1977); the AIAA Haley Astronautics Award for 1978; the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (1978); honorary doctorate in Science from Carthage College, Carthage, Illinois, in 1961; honorary doctorate in Engineering from Michigan Technological University in Houghton, Michigan, in 1965.

EXPERIENCE: Slayton entered the Air Force as an aviation cadet and received his wings in April 1943 after completing flight training at Vernon and Waco, Texas.

As a B-25 pilot with the 340th Bombardment Group, he flew 56 combat missions in Europe. He returned to the United States in mid-1944 as a B-25 instructor pilot at Columbia, South Carolina, and later served with a unit responsible for checking pilot proficiency in the A-26. In April 1945, he was sent to Okinawa with the 319th Bombardment Group and flew seven combat missions over Japan. He served as a B-25 instructor for one year following the end of the war and subsequently left the Air Force to enter the University of Minnesota. He became an aeronautical engineer after graduation and worked for two years with the Boeing Aircraft Corporation at Seattle, Washington, before being recalled to active duty in 1951 with the Minnesota Air National Guard.

Upon reporting for duty, he was assigned as maintenance flight test officer of an F-51 squadron located in Minneapolis, followed by 18-months as a technical inspector at Headquarters Twelfth Air Force, and a similar tour as fighter pilot and maintenance office with the 36th Fighter Day Wing at Bitburg, Germany. Returning to the United States in June 1955, he attended the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California. He was a test pilot there from January 1956 until April 1959 and participated in the testing of fighter aircraft built for the United States Air Force and some foreign countries.

He has logged more than 6,600 hours flying time, including 5,100 hours in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Mr. Slayton was named as one of the Mercury astronauts in April 1959. He was originally scheduled to pilot the Mercury-Atlas 7 mission but was relieved of this assignment due to a heart condition discovered in August 1959.

Mr. Slayton became Coordinator of Astronaut Activities in September 1962 and was responsible for the operation of the astronaut office. In November 1963, he resigned his commission as an Air Force Major to assume the role of Director of Flight Crew Operations. In this capacity, he was responsible for directing the activities of the astronaut office, the aircraft operations office, the flight crew integration division, the crew training and simulation division, and the crew procedures division. Slayton was restored to full flight status and certified eligible for manned space flights in March 1972, following a comprehensive review of his medical status by NASA's Director of Life Sciences and the Federal Aviation Agency.

Mr. Slayton made his first space flight as Apollo docking module pilot of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission, July 15-24, 1975â€"a joint space flight culminating in the first historical meeting in space between American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts. Completing the United States flight crew for this 9-day earth-orbital mission were Thomas P. Stafford (Apollo commander) and Vance D. Brand (Apollo command module Pilot). In the Soviet spacecraft were cosmonauts Alexey Leonov (Soyuz commander) and Valeriy Kubasov (Soyuz flight engineer). The crewmen of both nations participated in a rendezvous and subsequent docking, with Apollo the active spacecraft. The event marked the successful testing of a universal docking system and signaled a major advance in efforts to pave the way for the conduct of joint experiments and/or the exchange of mutual assistance in future international space explorations. There were 44 hours of docked joint activities during ASTP, highlighted by four crew transfers and the completion of a number of joint scientific experiments and engineering investigations. All major ASTP objectives were accomplished and included: testing a compatible rendezvous system in orbit; testing of androgynous docking assemblies; verifying techniques for crew transfers; and gaining experience in the conduct of joint international flights. Apollo splashed down in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii and was quickly recovered by the USS NEW ORLEANS. Slayton logged 217 hours and 28 minutes in his first space flight.

From December 1975 through November 1977, Slayton served as Manager for Approach and Landing Test Project. He directed the Space Shuttle approach and landing test project through a series of critical orbiter flight tests that allowed in-flight test and checkout of flight controls and orbiter subsystems and permitted extensive evaluations of the orbiter's subsonic flying qualities and performance characteristics.

He next served as Manager for Orbital Flight Test, directing orbital flight mission preparations and conducting mission operations. He was responsible for OFT operations scheduling, mission configuration control, preflight stack configuration control, as well as conducting planning reviews, mission readiness reviews, and postflight mission evaluations. He was also responsible for the 747/orbiter ferry program.

Slayton retired from NASA in 1982. He was president of Space Services Inc., of Houston, a company he founded to develop rockets for small commercial payloads.

Slayton died on June 13, 1993, in League City, Texas, from complications of a brain tumor.




VANCE BRAND
Born: May 9, 1931 in Longmont, Colorado

Vance DeVoe Brand
NASA ASTRONAUT (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Longmont, Colorado, May 9, 1931. Married to the former Beverly Ann Whitnel. Two daughters and four sons. Enjoys running to stay in condition, hiking, skiing, and camping.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Longmont High School, Longmont, Colorado; received a bachelor of science degree in Business from the University of Colorado in 1953, a bachelor of science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from there in 1960, and a master's degree in Business Administration from the UCLA in 1964.

ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Society of Experimental Test Pilots, and American Astronautical Society. Registered Professional Engineer in Texas. Member, Sigma Nu.

SPECIAL HONORS: JSC Certificate of Commendation (1970); NASA Distinguished Service Medals (1975 & 1992); NASA Exceptional Service Medals (1974 & 1988); Zeta Beta Tau's Richard Gottheil Medal (1975); Wright Brothers International Manned Space Flight Award (1975); VFW National Space Award (1976 & 1984); Sigma Nu Distinguished Alumnus of the Year Award (1976); Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI) Yuri Gagarin Gold Medal (1976); University of Colorado Alumnus of the Century (1 of 12) (1976); AIAA Special Presidential Citation (1977); American Astronautical Society's Flight Achievement Award for 1976 (1977); AIAA Haley Astronautics Award (1978); JSC Special Achievement Award (1978); Harmon Trophy (Astronaut) (1993); FAI De La Vaulx Medal (1983); NASA Space Flight Medals (1983, 1984, 1992); Distinguished Visiting Lecturer at University of Colorado (1984); De Molay Hall of Honor (1989); FAI Komarov Awards (1983 & 1991); University of Colorado George Norlin Award (1991); De Molay Legion of Honor (1993). International Space Hall of Fame (1996), U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame (1997). Meritorious Executive, U.S. Senior Executive Service (1997); Honorary Doctor of Science Degree from University of Colorado (2000); International Aerospace Hall of Fame (2001); Oklahoma Aviation and Space Hall of Fame (2005); Russian Republic Tsiolkovski Award (2005) and ASE Crystal Helmet Award (2005).

EXPERIENCE: Military. Commissioned officer and naval aviator with the U.S. Marine Corps from 1953 to 1957. Military assignments included a 15-month tour in Japan as a jet fighter pilot. Following release from active duty, Brand continued in Marine Corps Reserve and Air National Guard jet fighter squadrons until 1964.

Pre-NASA Civilian: Employed as a civilian by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation from 1960 to 1966, he worked initially as a flight test engineer on the Navy's P3A aircraft. In 1963, Brand graduated from the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School and was assigned to Palmdale, California as an experimental test pilot on Canadian and German F-104 programs. Just prior to selection to the astronaut program, Brand worked at the West German F-104G Flight Test Center at Istres, France as an experimental test pilot and leader of a Lockheed flight test advisory group.

Flight Experience: 9,669 flying hours, which includes 8,089 hours in jets, 391 hours in helicopters, 746 hours in spacecraft, and checkout in more than 30 types of military aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: One of the 19 pilot astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966, Brand initially was a crew member in the thermal vacuum chamber testing of the prototype Command Module and support crewman on Apollo 8 and 13. Later he was backup command module pilot for Apollo 15 and backup commander for Skylabs 3 and 4. As an astronaut he held management positions relating to spacecraft development, acquisition, flight safety and mission operations. Brand flew on four space missions; Apollo-Soyuz, STS-5, STS 41-B, and STS-35. He has logged 746 hours in space and has commanded three Shuttle missions. Mr. Brand departed the Astronaut Office in 1992 to become Chief of Plans at the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) Joint Program Office at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. In September 1994, he moved to California to become Assistant Chief of Flight Operations at the Dryden Flight Research Center, then Acting Chief Engineer, Deputy Director for Aerospace Projects and finally Acting Associate Center Director for Programs. Mr. Brand retired from NASA in January 2008.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: Apollo Soyuz: Brand was launched on his first space flight on July 15, 1975, as Apollo command module pilot on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. This flight resulted in the historic meeting in space between American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts. Other crewmen on this 9-day Earth-orbital mission were Thomas Stafford, Apollo commander, Donald Slayton, Apollo docking module pilot, cosmonaut Alexey Leonov, Soyuz commander; and cosmonaut Valeriy Kubasov, Soyuz flight engineer. The Soyuz spacecraft was launched at Baikonur in Central Asia, and the Apollo was launched 7 1/2 hours later at the Kennedy Space Center. Two days later Apollo accomplished a successful rendezvous and docking with Soyuz. The linkup tested a unique, new docking system and demonstrated international cooperation in space. There were 44 hours of docked joint activities which included 4 crew transfers between the Apollo and the Soyuz. Six records for docked and group flight were set on the mission and are recognized by the Federation Aeronautique Internationale. Apollo splashed down in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii, on July 25, and was promptly recovered by the USS New Orleans. Mission duration was 2l7 hours.

STS-5: Brand was commander of Columbia for STS-5, the first fully operational flight of the Shuttle Transportation System, which launched on November 11, 1982. His crew comprised Colonel Robert Overmyer, pilot, and two mission specialists, Dr. Joseph Allen and Dr. William Lenoir. STS-5, the first mission with a four man crew, demonstrated the Shuttle as operational by the successful first deployment of two commercial communications satellites from the Orbiter's payload bay. The mission marked the Shuttle's first use of an upper stage rocket, the Payload Assist Module (PAM-D). The satellites were deployed for Satellite Business Systems Corporation of McLean, Virginia, and TELESAT of Ottawa, Canada. Two FAI records for mass to altitude were set on the mission. Numerous flight tests were performed to ascertain Shuttle performance. STS-5 was the last flight to carry the Development Flight Instrumentation package to support extensive flight testing. The STS-5 crew concluded the 5-day orbital flight of Columbia with the landing approach through a cloud deck to Runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base, California on November 16, 1982. Mission duration was 122 hours.

STS 41-B: Brand commanded Challenger with a crew of five on the tenth flight of the Space Shuttle. The launch was on February 3, 1984. His crew included Commander Robert Gibson, pilot, and 3 mission specialists, Captain Bruce McCandless, II, Dr. Ronald McNair, and Lt. Col. Robert Stewart. The flight accomplished the proper shuttle deployment of two Hughes 376 communications satellites which failed to reach desired geosynchronous orbits due to upper stage solid rocket failures. This mission marked the first flight checkout of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) and the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) with McCandless and Stewart performing two spectacular extravehicular activities (EVA's). Shuttle rendezvous sensors and computer programs were flight tested for the first time. The 8-day flight of Challenger ended with the first landing to the runway at the Kennedy Space Center on February 11, 1984. Mission duration was 191 hours.

STS-35: Brand again commanded Columbia on the thirty-eighth flight of the Shuttle, this time with a crew of seven. The night launch on December 2, 1990 started a 9-day mission devoted to round-the-clock observations of stars and other celestial objects. Crewmen included the pilot, Col. Guy Gardner; three mission specialists, Mike Lounge, Dr. Robert Parker and Dr. Jeffrey Hoffman; and two payload specialists, Dr. Samuel Durrance and Dr. Ronald Parise. The 13-ton payload consisted of the 3 ASTRO-1 Ultraviolet (UV) Telescopes and the Broad Band X-ray Telescope. More than 200 Orbiter maneuvers were required to point the telescopes. This Shuttle flight, the first dedicated to astronomy, provided a rich return of science data with emphasis on observation of very active celestial objects. A night landing was made on December 10 to Runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base. Mission duration was 215 hours.




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