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His signature as Emperor on a manuscript document instructing the Minister of War to remove gunpowder stores from Turin, whose inhabitants are restive
Manuscript LS: "Nap" in French as Emperor of the French, 1 page, 7x9. Valledolid [Spain], 1809 January 14. To General Henri J.G. Clarke, private secretary to Napoléon (1799-1804) and his Minister of War (1807-1814). Not translated, but in this letter, the Emperor orders the removal of the gunpowder at Turin, Italy as citizens are alarmed. He asks if the powder can be placed elsewhere, possibly at Alessandria. In late 1808 Napoleon, frustrated by failures of the French army in its campaign in Spain, took personal command there. However, renewal of war with Austria soon forced Napoleon to leave the Spanish war to other generals. In 1813, the French were finally expelled from Spain with the help of English forces under the command of the Duke of Wellington. After Napoleon's crushing victory over Austria forces at Marengo in 1800, a large swath of Italian land, including the city of Turin, was formally annexed by France. Although many Italians had welcomed Bonaparte as a liberator, this letter suggests that the Emperor did not entirely trust Turin's townspeople, ordering removal of the powder to a small town south of the city. Folds, vertical fold touches the "N". Lightly soiled at blank area, pinhead-size rust stain at upper left blank margin. Overall, fine condition.

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Born: August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica, France
Died: May 5, 1821 in Longwood, Saint Helena

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