KING PHILIP III (SPAIN) - DOCUMENT SIGNED 07/12/1599 - HFSID 48339
Sale Price $1,275.00
KING PHILIP III
The King Philip III of Spain signs a very special document beautifully written on vellum in Latin and dated on July 12, 1599!
Document Signed: "Yo El Rey" in iron gall ink. 29¾x15¼. One page. Untranslated from Latin. "Philip III (1578-1621) was born in Madrid to King Philip II of Spain and his fourth wife and niece Anna, who was the daughter of the Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain, so he was a member of the House of Habsburg. After the painful death of his father, Philip ascended the throne of Spain in 1598 (Philip III in Castile, Philip II in Aragon and Filipe II in Portugal). Even though he is still known in Spain as "Philip the Pious", his political reputation overseas is not positive. Specially, King Philip's reliance on his corrupt chief minister, the Duke of Lerma, caused much criticism at the time and afterwards. King Philip II married his cousin Margaret of Austria in 1599, who was the sister of the future Emperor Ferdinand II and one of the three women at Philip's court who would have considerable influence over him. Margaret was seen by contemporaries as extremely pious and very influenced by the Church, very astute and skillful in her political dealings but melancholic and unhappy over the influence of the Duke of Lerma over her husband at court. Queen Margaret continued to fight an ongoing battle with Lerma for influence up until her death in 1611. Her relationship with her husband is said to have been close and affectionate, the King paid her more attention after she gave birth a son in 1605. The Queen, alongside Philip's aunt Empress Maria, who was the Austrian representative to the Spanish court, and Margaret of the Cross, who was Maria's daughter, formed a powerful uncompromising catholic and pro-Austrian voice within Philip's life. For instance, they were the ones who convinced him to give financial support to Ferdinand from 1600 onwards. However, Philip steadily acquired other religious advisors such as Father Juan de Santa Maria, who was the confessor of Philip's daughter Dona Maria and who contemporaries thought he had an excessive influence over the king at the end of his life, and both he and Luis de Aliaga, who was Philip's own confessor, were credited with influencing the overthrow of Lerma in 1618; also, a favored nun of Queen Margaret called Mariana de San Jose, was criticized for her later influence over the King's actions. Many historians and people in general think that the decline of Spain can be dated to the economic difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. Nevertheless, he was the ruler of the Spanish Empire at its height and the monarch who achieved a temporary peace with the Dutch(1609-1621) and who took Spain into the Thirty Year's War (1618-1648) thorough a campaign that was very successful in the beginning. Philip died in Madrid on March 31, 1621 and was succeeded by his son Philip IV. Written on vellum. A 12¼x8 portion has been cut off the bottom edge, and there is a ¼x¼ nick which affects the flourish in the signature. Foxed, toned and soiled.
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