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The original six astronauts from Canada sign a commemorative envelope for the Telsat-B.
Commemorative Envelope signed: "Ken Money", "Roberta Bondar", "Bjarni Tryggvason", "Bob Thirsk", "Steve MacLean" and "Marc Garneau", 6½x3½. "Telsat-B" cover bearing eleven-cent stamp, postmarked Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, 1973 April 20. Only Money, who left the program in 1992, never went into space. Five of the original six have flown aboard U.S. space shuttles: Bondar (Discovery, 1992); Tryggvason (Discovery, 1997); Thirsk (Columbia, 1996); MacLean (Columbia, 1992) and Garneau, the first Canadian in space (Challenger, 1984; Endeavor, 1996). Fine condition.

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Born: February 23, 1949 in Quebec City, Canada

Born in February 1949 in Quebec City, Canada. He received his early education in Quebec City and Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu in Quebec and in London, England. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering Physics from the Royal Military College of Kingston in 1970, and a Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, England, in 1973. He attended the Canadian Forces Command and Staff College of Toronto in 1982-1983.

Marc Garneau was a Combat Systems Engineer in HMCS Algonquin from 1974-76. While serving as an instructor in naval weapon systems at the Canadian Forces Fleet School in Halifax, 1976-77, he designed a simulator for use in training weapons officers in the use of missile systems aboard Tribal class destroyers. He served as Project Engineer in naval weapon systems in Ottawa from 1977 to 1980. He returned to Halifax with the Naval Engineering Unit, which troubleshoots and performs trials on ship-fitted equipment, and helped develop an aircraft-towed target system for the scoring of naval gunnery accuracy. Promoted to Commander in 1982 while at Staff College, he was transferred to Ottawa in 1983 and became design authority for naval communications and electronic warfare equipment and systems. In January 1986, he was promoted to Captain. He retired from the Navy in 1989. He is one of six Canadian astronauts selected in December 1983. He was seconded to the Canadian Astronaut Program from the Department of National Defence in February 1984 to begin astronaut training. He became the first Canadian astronaut to fly in space as a Payload Specialist on Shuttle Mission 41-G in October 1984. He was named Deputy Director of the Canadian Astronaut Program in 1989, providing technical and program support in the preparation of experiments to fly during future Canadian missions. He was selected for Mission Specialist training in July 1992.

Marc Garneau reported to the Johnson Space Center in August 1992. He completed a one-year training and evaluation program to be qualified for flight assignment as a Mission Specialist. He initially worked on technical issues for the Astronaut Office Robotics Integration Team and subsequently served as Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) in Mission Control during Shuttle flights. A veteran of three space flights (STS-41G in 1984, STS-77 in 1996 and STS-97 in 2000), Marc Garneau has logged over 677 hours in space. In February 2001, Marc Garneau was appointed Executive Vice President, Canadian Space Agency. He was subsequently appointed President of the Canadian Space Agency, effective November 22, 2001. He resigned from this position on November 28, 2005, to run for office in the federal election.

Honorary Fellow of the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute. Member of the Association of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia, and the Navy League of Canada. He was named Honorary Member of the Canadian Society of Aviation Medicine in 1988 and a Member of the International Academy of Astronautics in 2002. Marc Garneau is the National Honourary Patron of Hope Air and Project North Star and the President of the Board of the McGill Chamber Orchestra.

He was promoted Companion of the Order of Canada in 2003, having been appointed as an Officer in 1984. Named Chancellor of Carleton University (2003). Awarded a Doctor of Science degree, honoris causa, by York University (2002) and the University of Lethbridge (2001). Recipient of the Prix Montfort en sciences (2003); Golden Jubilee Medal of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (2002); NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1997); NASA Space Flight Medals (1984, 1996, 2000); the Canadian Decoration (military) (1980); the Athlone Fellowship (1970); and the National Research Council (NRC) Bursary (1972). Awarded Honorary Doctorates by the University of Ottawa (1997); the Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean (1990); the Université Laval, Québec (1985); the Technical University of Nova Scotia (1985); and the Royal Military College, Kingston, Ontario (1985). Co-recipient of the F.W. (Casey) Baldwin Award in 1985 for the best paper in the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal.

Born: April 1, 1935 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Kenneth Money (born April 1, 1935 in Toronto, Canada) is the Senior Scientist at the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine in Toronto. He has published over one hundred science articles and authored six different topics in the World Book Encyclopedia.

Some of his contributions in the scientific field include knowledge of the inner ear, motion sickness, disorientation, and biological effects of space flight. Some of Money's interests include badminton, skiing, acrobatic flying, skydiving, fishing, and reading. In 1956, Money competed at the Olympic Games and placed fifth in the men's high jump event. In 1989, he won the U.S. masters badminton championship in Miami, Florida.
Money was selected by the National Research Council of Canada as an astronaut candidate in December 1983, but left the Canadian Astronaut Corps in 1992 without having flown in space. He acted as Spacelab Payload Operations Controller for a Spacelab mission in 1992.
During the same mission, Money served as the alternate astronaut, having the capability to fly if needed. He is credited with the invention of an experimental surgical operation called semicircular canal plugging, which is now being used in North America and Europe to treat particular types of dizzy spells.

Born: December 4, 1945 in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada

Roberta Bondar is Canada's first female astronaut and the first neurologist in space. Following more than a decade as NASA's head of space medicine, Bondar became a consultant and speaker in the business, scientific, and medical communities.
Bondar has received many honours including the Order of Canada, the Order of Ontario, the NASA Space Medal, over 22 honorary degrees and induction into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame.

Born: December 14, 1954 in Ottawa, Canada

MacLean attended Merivale High School in Nepean, Ontario. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in physics in 1977 and a doctorate in physics in 1983 from York University in Toronto. In 1977, he received the President's Award at York University (Murray G. Ross Award). He is a recipient of a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council post graduate scholarship in 1980, two Ontario graduate scholarships, one in 1981 and the other in 1982, and a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council postdoctoral fellowship in 1983.
He is an honorary fellow of Norman Bethune College of York University and president of the board of directors for the Mont Megantic Observatory project.
From 1974 to 1976, MacLean worked in sports administration and public relations at York University. From 1976 to 1977, he was a member of the Canadian National gymnastics team. He taught part-time at York University from 1980 to 1983. In 1983, he became a visiting scholar at Stanford University under Nobel Laureate Arthur Leonard Schawlow. He is a laser-physicist, and his research has included work on electro-optics, laser-induced fluorescence of particles and crystals and multi-photon laser spectroscopy.

Born: August 17, 1953 in New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada

Birthplace and date: Born August 17, 1953, New Westminster, British Columbia.

Education: Bob attended primary and secondary schools in British Columbia, Alberta, and Manitoba. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Calgary in 1976, a Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1978, a Doctorate of Medicine from McGill University in 1982, and a Master of Business Administration from the MIT Sloan School of Management in 1998.

Professional Societies: College of Family Physicians of Canada, College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, British Columbia Medical Association, Ontario Medical Association, Canadian Medical Association, Aerospace Medical Association, Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute, Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario.

Special Honours: Gold Medal, Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists, and Geophysicists of Alberta, 1976.  Distinguished Alumni Award, University of Calgary, 1985.  NASA Space Flight Medal, 1996 and 2009.  Honorary Member, College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia, 1997.  Gold Medal, Professional Engineers of Ontario, 1997.  Neil J. Armstrong Award, Aero Space Museum of Calgary, 2001.  Alouette Award – The Tomatosphere Team, Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute, 2007.  Honorary Doctorates from the University of Calgary, 2009; the University of New Brunswick, 2010; Simon Fraser University, 2011; and Ryerson University, 2012.  International Cooperation in Cosmonautics Medal, Russian Federal Space Agency, 2009.  Yuri Gagarin Medal, Federation of Cosmonautics of Russia, 2009.  NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal, 2009.  Paul Harris Fellow, The Rotary Foundation of Rotary International, 2010.  Outer Space Exploration Medal of Merit, President of the Russian Federation, 2011.  Sandford Fleming Medal, Council of the Royal Canadian Institute for the Advancement of Science, 2012.  Order of British Columbia, 2012.  In honour: Robert Thirsk High School, Calgary, 2012.

Experience: Bob was selected in December 1983 for the Canadian Astronaut Program. He began astronaut training in February 1984 and served as backup payload specialist to Marc Garneau for the October 1984 Space Shuttle Mission STS-41G.

Bob has been involved in various Canadian Space Agency projects including parabolic flight campaigns and mission planning. He served as crew commander for two space mission simulations: the seven-day CAPSULS mission in 1994, at Defence Research and Development Canada in Toronto, and the 11-day NEEMO 7 undersea mission in 2004 at the National Undersea Research Center in Key Largo, Florida.  He led an international research team investigating the effect of weightlessness on the heart and blood vessels.

Bob is a strong promoter of a Canadian economy based upon exploration and innovation. He encourages young Canadians to build their dreams upon a solid educational foundation and advanced skills.  He works with educational specialists in Canada to develop space-related curriculum for grade school students.  Initiatives such as Space for Species, Tomatosphere and From Blue To Red have allowed millions of young Canadians to experience the thrill of scientific discovery.

Bob also holds an Adjunct Faculty position at International Space University.  He co-leads a research team of ISU alumni investigating the effect of spaceflight on neuroperception.

In 1998, Bob was assigned by the Canadian Space Agency to NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston to pursue mission specialist training. This training program involved advanced instruction on both Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) systems, EVA (spacewalking), robotic operations, and Russian language. Within the NASA Astronaut Office, Bob served as a CapCom (capsule communicator) for the International Space Station program.

In 2004, Bob trained at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre near Moscow and became certified as a Flight Engineer for the Soyuz spacecraft. He served as backup Flight Engineer to European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori for the Soyuz 10S taxi mission to the ISS in April 2005. During this 10-day mission, Bob worked as Eurocom (European CapCom) at ESA's Columbus Control Centre in Germany. In February 2008, Bob again performed Eurocom duties from Germany in support of ISS Expedition 16 crew activities.

Spaceflight Experience: In June and July 1996, Bob flew as a payload specialist aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-78, the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) mission. During this 17-day flight aboard Columbia, he and his six crewmates performed 43 international experiments devoted to the study of life and materials sciences. The life science experiments investigated changes in plants, animals, and humans under space flight conditions. The materials science experiments examined protein crystallization, fluid physics and high-temperature solidification of multi-phase materials in a weightless environment.

In 2009 Bob became the first Canadian astronaut to fly a long duration expedition aboard the International Space Station. He and two crewmates launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on 27 May aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. When their Soyuz vehicle docked with the nearly-complete Station two days later, the ISS became home for the first time to a permanent crew of six. As members of the ISS Expedition 20/21 crew, Bob and his five international crewmates performed an unprecedented amount of multidisciplinary research, complex robotic operations, and maintenance and repair work of Station systems and payloads. Following the undocking of his Soyuz spacecraft from the Station and landing back in Kazakhstan on December 1st, Bob Thirsk had lived and worked in space for another 188 days during this second voyage to space.

Dr. Thirsk resigned as astronaut and left the Canadian Space Agency in 2012 to join the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in Ottawa.  As Vice-President of Public, Government and Institute Affairs, Bob oversees the thirteen institutes dedicated to specific health care issues such as aging and cancer research.

Born: September 21, 1945 in Reykjavik, Iceland

Personal profile: Born September 21, 1945, in Reykjavik, Iceland, Bjarni Tryggvason has two children. He is an Airline Transport rated pilot with more than 4,500 hours of flight experience, and 1,800 hours as a flight instructor. Mr. Tryggvason is active in aerobatic flight and completed a Captaincy check in the Tutor jet trainer with the Canadian Air Force. He enjoys jogging, skiing, and general fitness.

Education: Attended primary school in Nova Scotia and British Columbia and high school in Richmond, British Columbia. Obtained a Bachelor of Applied Science in Engineering Physics, from the University of British Columbia in 1972. Completed postgraduate work in engineering with specialization in applied mathematics and fluid dynamics at the University of Western Ontario.

Affiliations: Member of the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute.

Special honours: Canadian Space Agency Innovators Award (3), 2003; Order of the Falcon from Iceland; Doctorate of Philosophy (honoris causa), University of Iceland, 2000; Doctor of Science (honoris causa), University of Western Ontario, 1998; NASA Space Flight Medal 1997; numerous scholarships throughout university years.

Experience: Bjarni Tryggvason was a meteorologist with the cloud physics group at the Meteorlogic Service Canada (formerly the Atmospheric Environment Service) in Toronto in 1972 and 1973. After this, he served as a research associate in industrial aerodynamics at the Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory at the University of Western Ontario from 1974 to 1979.

Mr. Tryggvason was a guest research associate at Kyoto University, in Kyoto, Japan, in 1979 and at James Cook University of North Queensland, in Townsville, Australia in 1980. He was a lecturer in Applied Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario from 1980 to 1982.

From 1982 to 1984, Mr. Tryggvason was a Research Officer at the Low Speed Aerodynamics Laboratory at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and was a lecturer at the University of Ottawa and at Carleton University from 1982 to 1992.

Selected as one of the original six Canadian astronauts in December 1983, Mr. Tryggvason trained as a backup payload specialist for the CANEX-2 set of experiments, which flew on Mission STS-52 in October 1992. He was also the project engineer for the Space Vision System Target Spacecraft, which was deployed during that mission.

Mr. Tryggvason also served as the principal investigator for the following projects: the development of the Large Motion Isolation Mount (LMIM) which flew numerous times on NASA KC-135 and DC-9 aircraft; the Microgravity vibration Isolation Mount (MIM) which operated on the Russian space station, Mir, from April 1996 until January 1998 to support several Canadian and US experiments in material science and fluid physics; and of the MIM-2 which flew on STS-85 in August 1997. He was the originator and technical director during the early development phase of the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Subsystem (MVIS), which the CSA developed for the European Space Agency Fluid Science Laboratory for the ISS.

On August 7, 1997, Mr. Tryggvason flew as a payload specialist aboard Space Shuttle Discovery on Mission STS-85. His primary role was to test MIM-2 and perform fluid science experiments designed to examine sensitivity to spacecraft vibrations, in order to develop a better understanding of the need for systems such as the MIM on the International Space Station (ISS), and to study the effect vibrations have on the many experiments performed on the ISS.

In August 1998, he was invited to take part in NASA mission specialist training held at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. His class underwent two years of physical and academic training, and marked the first group of astronauts to be trained as both mission specialists for the space shuttle and as potential crewmembers for the ISS.

Following completion of mission specialist training, his NASA duties included serving as a crew representative for the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL), which is used to test shuttle flight software prior to onboard use. He also supported integrated simulations on the ISS Training Facility at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, and served as a CSA representative on the NASA Microgravity Measurement Working Group and on the ISS Microgravity Analytic Integration Team.

From mid 2001 to 2003 he worked in the private sector while on leave from the CSA. He returned temporarily to work at the CSA in 2004 and currently holds the position of visiting professor at the University of Western Ontario.

He has written more than 50 published papers and holds three patents.

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