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GROVER CLEVELAND and WALTER Q. GRESHAM. Partly Printed DS: "Grover Cleveland" as 24th U.S. President and "W.Q. Gresham" as Secretary of State, 1p, 22½x18½. Washington, 1895 January 3. In full: "Satisfactory evidence having been exhibited to me that Paul T. Walker has been appointed Honorary Consul of Venezuela at Cincinnati; I do hereby recognize him as such and declare him free to exercise and enjoy such functions, powers and privileges as are allowed to Consuls by the law of Nations, or by the laws of the United States." Consuls in America served as business agents of the governments by which they were accredited. They authorized bills of exchange and goods for export, arranged credits and issued visas for travelers. Cincinnati, which sits on the Ohio River, historically has been a busy river port and considered a "gateway" to the South. At the time of this document, the U.S. was about to enter into a period marked by an increase in the volume of imports from South American countries, including industrial Venezuela. Venezuela and Great Britain were at odds over the western border of British Guiana (now Guyana). The conflict began in 1841. Venezuela, through its pressure, got the U.S. (who was reluctant to get involved) to attempt to arbitrate a settlement between Venezuela and Great Britain. Just a month before President CLEVELAND signed this appointment, he spoke of the U.S. commitment to act as mediator, "I shall renew the efforts heretofore made to bring about a restoration of diplomatic relations between the disputants and to induce a reference to arbitration -- a resort which Great Britain so conspicuously favors in principle and respects in practice and which is earnestly sought by her weaker adversary." On May 28, 1895, less than four months after he signed this document, Secretary of State WALTER Q. GRESHAM died. Succeeding him as Secretary of State, Richard Olney formulated a policy that extended the Monroe Doctrine. The Olney Doctrine maintained that the U.S. had a right to intervene in any international dispute which affected the American continents. The dispute was finally settled in 1899 with the border line drawn substantially along the British claim except that the mouth of the Orinoco River was given to Venezuela. Folds, vertical fold touches the "G". Mounting remnants at perimeter from prior framing. Shaded at left blank margin on verso (light show through). Lightly soiled.

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Born: March 18, 1837 in Caldwell, New Jersey
Died: June 24, 1908 in Princeton, New Jersey

Film Credits
1952 Days of McKinley, Bryan, and Teddy Roosevelt (Other), 1897 Return of McKinley from the Capitol (in person), 1897 President Cleveland and President McKinley (in person), 1897 McKinley and Cleveland Going to the Capitol (in person)

Born: March 17, 1832 in Lanesville, Indiana
Died: May 28, 1895 in Washington, District of Columbia

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