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The controversial Mexican president and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs sign this clipped portion of a beautifully sealed document

Document Fragment During his life he wrote several books an translated some from English into Spanish, one of them is The Crow, by Edgar Allan Poe. Signed: “Porfirio Diaz” and “Ignacio Mariscal” in iron gall ink. 15½x5. One page. Dated: March 6, 1899. Fully Translated in English:Written in National Palace of Mexico, signed by my hand, authorized with the seal of the Nation and countersigned by the Secretary of Foreign Affairs on March 6, 1899. Porfirio Diaz. Ignacio Mariscal.” JOSE DE LA CRUZ PORFIRIO DIAZ MORI (1830-1915) was the 29th President of Mexico, who served seven terms totaling three and a half decades between 1876 and 1911. Even though he had started his preparation to become a priest, he found out that his real vocation was the military and became a soldier and lawyer. As a veteran of the Reform War and the French intervention in Mexico, he rose to the rank of General, leading republican troops against Emperor Maximilian of Habsburg. Mexican historians have called his presidential term Porfiriato. Porfirio Diaz is a controversial historical figure, some consider him a heartless villain and others a man who did not hesitate to impose order and progress in the country. His presidency term is known for the enormous internal stability known as “paz porfiriana”, modernization and economic growth. Even though Porfirio Diaz made a heavy investment in mining and railways from American and British business his regime grew unpopular due to repression and political stagnation. Furthermore because his economic policies helped a few wealthy land owners to acquire huge areas of land that left rural farming peasants unable to make a living, thus resulting in few jobs and very low wages for the growing working population of Mexico. All of that directly originated the Mexican Revolution which main purpose was to remove him from power after he imprisoned his electoral rival and declared himself the winner of an eight term in office. Fearing for his life, he and his wife escaped to France, where he died in exile for years later. He is buried in Montparnasse cemetery in Paris. Even though in recent years some historians have started a deep re-analysis of his legacy and recognized the progress he brought to Mexico, some still considering him a dictator and proof of it is that his remains have not been returned to Mexico. IGNACIO MARISCAL FAGOAGA (1829-1910) was a very important writer, diplomat and politician. There is just a little information about his family, his father was Mariano Mariscal, who was a deputy during the Mexican-American War. Ignacio Mariscal studied law at the Oaxaca Institute of Arts and Sciences, where he obtained his bachelor's degree in 1849. Due to his position to the pro Santa Anna's governor, Ignacio Martinez Pinillo, he moved to Mexico City in 1854; and after the triumph of the liberal wing, Benito Juarez invited him to take part of the Juan Alvarez administration and was named advisor on the implementation of Ecclesiastical Confiscation Law. For his knowledge and experience Mariscal was elected as deputy of the 1857 Constituent Congress of Mexico. This Congrees draw up the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States on 1857. He was member of the Judicial Committee where he took part on the debates related to the military and ecclesiastical Fuero. With the beginning of the Reform War he traveled with President Juarez to Veracruz. He was named Secretary of Foreign Affairs from 1871 to 1872 for the first time in the Benito Juarez administration. During the Porfirio Diaz's government, he held the office from 1880 to 1883 and from 1885 to 1910. In 1909 he became President of Mexican Academy of the Language and remained there until his death. During his life he wrote several books an translated some from English into Spanish, one of them is The Crow, by Edgar Allan Poe. Sealed. Lightly toned. Creased. Multiple mailing folds.  Otherwise, fine condition.


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Born: September 15, 1830 in Oaxaca, Mexico
Died: July 2, 1915 in Paris, France

Born: July 5, 1829 in Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico
Died: April 17, 1910 in Mexico City, Mexico

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