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PRESIDENT SALVADOR CISNEROS BETANCOURT (CUBA) - MILITARY APPOINTMENT SIGNED 09/04/1896 CO-SIGNED BY: SEVERO PINA, ORENCIO NODARSE, GENERAL RAFAEL PORTUONDO TAMAYO, BRIGADIER GENERAL JOSE CLEMENTE VIVANCO, SAUL ALSINA Y ESPINOSA - HFSID 218050

Military Appointment signed by Cisneros and other members of the Governing Council, the provisional government (1896) Military Appointment Signed: "Salvador Cisneros y B" as President of the Governing Council, "Rafael M.

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Military Appointment signed by Cisneros and other members of the Governing Council, the provisional government (1896)
Military Appointment Signed: "Salvador Cisneros y B" as President of the Governing Council, "Rafael M. Portuando" as State Secretary in the War Department, "Jose Clemente Vivanco" as Secretary of the Governing Council, "Severo Pina" as Secretary of the Treasury, "Orencio Nodarse" as Sub-Secretary of the Treasury and "Saul Alsina y Espinosa" asChiefofWar SecretaryDepartment. A deputy has signed on behalf of Secretary of War Carlos Roloff. In all 6 signatures. 8½x12. Fully translated in English: "Republic of Cuba. The President of the Governing Council. Due to the citizen Jorge Villuendas y de La Torre has properly justified his inclusion in the agreement of the Governing Council of November 28, 1895, I, in obedience of the article 10th of the Constitution, confer him the title of Military Lieutenant of the Liberation Army, taking effect on May 18, 1896. For all that, I order to all the Civil and Military authorities of the Republic to grand Lieutenant Jorge Villuendas De la Torre all the prerogatives and considerations inherits to his title. As a proof, I issue this diploma signed by my own hand, sealed with the seal of the Republic and countersigned by the Secretary of State in the War Department, and with the acknowledge of the Secretary of the Treasure for the necessary effects. Residence of the Executive in 'Guasimas de Agramonte' on September 4, 1896.The President Salvador Cisneros y B, The State Secretary in the War Department P.A. Rafael M. Portuondo. Title of Military Lieutenant in favor of Jorge Villuendas y de La Torre, registered on the correspondent book. The Secretary of the Governing Council,Secretary of the Treasury. Take reason for the general intervention of this Secretary, Severo Piña. Reason taken on file 2 n. 3 of the correspondent book. The Sub-Secretary of the Treasury Orencio Nodarse. War Department. Registered on the correspondent book The Department Chief Saul Alsina y Espinosa." Liberation Army Headquarters, Guasimas, Cuba, 1896 September 4. Appointment of Jorge Villuendas as a Lieutenant in the Liberation Army, effective from May 18, 1896. In February 1895, a Cuban revolutionary army organized by José Marti, with military commanders Maximo Gomez and Antonio Maceo, landed in Cuba, intent on renewing the struggle to free the island from Spanish rule. Marti was anxious to free Cuba from Spain, but also to preserve Cuban independence from the United States. Marti was killed on May 19, but in September 1895, representatives from the major components of the Liberation Army met at Jimaguaya to adopt a Constitution and establish a provisional government. The government was headed by a Governing Council combining legislative and executive functions.Salvador Cisneros y Betancourt was elected President, and the other signers of this document were also installed. The Council met intermittently, with the military commanders exercising real power. Cisneros himself was considered something of a figurehead. By September 1896, when this document was signed, the Liberation Army controlled much of eastern Cuba, while the Spanish retained more control in the wealthier west, nearer Havana. Hence the Governing Council held this meeting in Guasimas, east of Santiago de Cuba and close to the later famous Guantanamo. While it may seem unusual for so many high officials to sign the commission of an army lieutenant, members of the new government were no doubt eager to assert their authority. In 1898, after the USA declared war on Spain and landed forces in Cuba, a significant battle was fought at Guasimas, with a force under former Confederate General Joseph Wheeler driving a Spanish armed force back toward Santiago. Rafael M. Portuando (1867-1908) was a lawyer and Cuban military who was moved by the colonial situation to join the revolutionaries and his experience made him become Major-General in the war of 1865. He also worked as a delegate of the Revolutionary Party in Camaguey and was linked to the actions of Jose Marti and General Antonio Maceo. He also held more seniors members among the freedom fighters and was delegated by east to the constituted Assembly of Jumaguayu, Secretary outside of the Government, President of the Asamblea of Santa Cruz del Sur and a member of the free Cuban newspaper team. He not only had the opportunity to live the Spain defeat and the departure of the troops, but also felt the power and strength of the residents of the North in its expansionist aspirations, so Portuando spoke out against the Platt Amendment. He is also well known for heading the rebellion of "El Cobre". Jose Clemente Vivanco (1873-1946) was a Cuban patriotic lawyer who fought for the Independence of Cuba. He was Brigade General and collaborated in many different newspapers and magazines in La Habana and San Antonio. Vivanco was a prominent editor and collaborator of Las Villas. During the war days was the assistant of Jose Maria Aguirre but when he got caught, Vivanco escaped and moved to Cayo Hueso, where he continued fighting. He was elected Representative of the Asamblea de Jimaguayú and was named as one of the Government Secretaries. He collaborated in the writing of the Invader Anthem; Severo Pina (1854-1927) was a Cuban who fought for the independence of his country and served as a magistrate of the Audience of Santa Clara, title given to him also in Matanzas and Camaguey. Pina was also War General Auditor; Orencio Nodarse (b. 1868) was a Cuban colonel of the Liberation Army who participated as a delegate in the Asamblea de Jimaguayu and who held the title of Sub-Secretary of the Treasury. Due to an agreement made by the Government Council in 1898, he traveled via Jamaica to the United States of America as part of a delegation presided by brigadier Domingo Mendez Capote, vice president of the Republic in Arms, having the goal to obtain a loan for the government. On august 4, 1905 Nodarse was elected mayor of La Habana but the title was stolen from him through a politic maneuver made by president Tomas Estrada Palma. He worked as a director of communications twice and participated in the lift of the rebellion against president Mario Garcia Menocal on February 1917. When Nodarse was about to get caught he escaped to New York; Saul Alsina y Espinosa (b. 1868) was a Cuban who joined the Liberation Army in 1895 when landing in Tayabacoa beach with the expedition James Woodall on charge of Mayor General Carlos Roloff. He entered the General Barracks in Las Villas, obtaining the title of Captain and remained there until 1895, when was named Chief of War Secretary Department. In 1898, Alsina y Espinosa was named Chief of War Department of the Cuban Representatives Assembly. All edges frayed and tattered. Toned and soiled. Normal mailing folds. Pin-size holes throughout (not effecting signatures). Otherwise, fine condition.

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