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Commemorative Envelope signed by all 6 crew members: McMonagle, Brown, Ochoa, Tanner, Clervoy and Parazynski
Commemorative Envelope signed: "Don McMonagle", "Curt Brown", "Ellen Ochoa", "Scott Parazynski", "Joe Tanner", "Jean-Francois Clervoy", 6½x3½. Envelope postmarked Kennedy Space Center, November 3, 1994 and Edwards Air Force Base, November 14, 1994. Space shuttle mission STS-67, conducted by Atlantis, launched from the Kennedy Space Center on November 3, 1994 and returned to Edwards Air Force Base on November 14. The primary payload was Spacelab ATLAS-03, which studied how the sun's energy affects the Earth's climate and made detailed measurements of the Northern Hemisphere's middle atmosphere, with special attention to changes in the ozone layer. Atlantis also deployed the CRISTA spectrometer telescope, a joint US-German project. The crew included Commander DONALD R. McMONAGLE; Pilot CURTIS L. BROWN, JR.; AND Mission Specialists JOSEPH R. TANNER, JEAN-FRANCOIS CLERVOY AND SCOTT E. PARAZYNSKI. All were NASA astronauts except for Clervoy of CNES, the French space agency. Fine condition.

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Born: May 14, 1952 in Flint, Michigan


Donald R. McMonagle (Retired Colonel, U.S. Air Force) became the Manager, Launch Integration,at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, effective August 15, 1997. In this capacity he is responsible for final Shuttle preparation, launch execution, and return of the orbiter to KSC following landings at any location other than KSC. He is chair of the Mission Management Team, and is the final authority for launch decision.

McMonagle was born on May 14, 1952, in Flint, Michigan, and graduated from Hamady High School, Flint, Michigan, in 1970. McMonagle received a Bachelor of Science degree in Astronautical Engineering from the United States Air Force Academy in 1974 and a Master of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from California State University-Fresno in 1985.

McMonagle completed pilot training at Columbus Air Force Base (AFB), Mississippi, in 1975. After F-4 training at Homestead AFB, Florida, he went on a 1-year tour of duty as an F-4 pilot at Kunsan Air Base, South Korea. He returned from overseas to Holloman AFB, New Mexico, in 1977. In 1979, McMonagle was assigned to Luke AFB, Arizona, as an F-15 instructor pilot. In 1981, he entered the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards AFB, California, and was the outstanding graduate in his class. From 1982 to 1985, McMonagle was the operations officer and a project test pilot for the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration F-16 aircraft. After attending the Air Command and Staff College at Maxwell AFB, Alabama, from 1985 to 1986, he was assigned as the operations officer of the 6513th Test Squadron at Edwards AFB. McMonagle has over 5,000 hours of flying experience in a variety of aircraft, primarily the T-38, F- 4, F-15, and F-16.

McMonagle was selected as an astronaut by NASA in June 1987. A veteran of three space flights, McMonagle has logged over 605 hours in space. McMonagle flew as a mission specialist aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on Department of Defense mission STS-39 in April 1991. During this highly successful 8-day mission, the seven-man crew deployed, operated, and retrieved a remotely-controlled spacecraft and conducted several science experiments to include research of both natural and induced phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere. In January 1993, McMonagle served as pilot on STS-54 aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The 6-day mission featured the deployment of a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and the collection of information about celestial x-rays using a Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer. McMonagle commanded a crew of six aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-66 Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) 11-day mission in November 1994. In January 1996 McMonagle was assigned the task to establish a new Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Project Office responsible for managing all NASA resources associated with space suits and tools used to conduct space walks in support of Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. This role included responsibility for developing and implementing a plan for research and development of next generation space suits to support future human space exploration.

McMonagle's accomplishments have earned him many notable awards. He has received the Air Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, three Air Force Commendation Medals, the Defense Meritorious Service Medal, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Liethen-Tittle Award (Top Graduate from USAF Test Pilot School), three NASA Space Flight Medals, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, and the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal.

McMonagle is a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots; Association of Graduates, U. S. Air Force Academy; and Association of Space Explorers.

McMonagle is married to the former Janyce Morton of Phoenix, Arizona. They have two children and reside in Merritt Island, Florida.

Born: March 11, 1956 in Elizabethtown, North Carolina

Curtis L. Brown, Jr. (Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born March 11, 1956, in Elizabethtown, North Carolina. He is married and has one son. He enjoys water and snow skiing, scuba diving, air racing, restoring old cars, sailing, aerobatic flying. His mother, Mrs. Rachel H. Brown, resides in Elizabethtown, North Carolina. His father, Mr. Curtis L. Brown, Sr., is deceased.

EDUCATION: Graduated from East Bladen High School, Elizabethtown, North Carolina, in 1974; received a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering from the Air Force Academy in 1978.

ORGANIZATIONS: Member, United States Air Force Association, United States Air Force Academy Association of Graduates, Experimental Aircraft Association and Classic Jet Aircraft Association.

SPECIAL HONORS: Defense Superior Service Medal, Defense Meritorious Service Medal (2), Air Force Meritorious Service Medal, Air Force Commendation Medal, Air Force Achievement Medal, NASA Space Flight Medal (6).

EXPERIENCE: Brown was commissioned a second lieutenant at the United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, in 1978, and completed undergraduate pilot training at Laughlin Air Force Base, Del Rio, Texas. He graduated in July 1979 and was assigned to fly A-10 aircraft at Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina, arriving there in January 1980 after completing A-10 training at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona. In March 1982, he was reassigned to Davis-Monthan Air Force Base as an instructor pilot in the A-10. In January 1983, he attended USAF Fighter Weapons School at Nellis Air Force Base and returned to Davis-Monthan Air Force Base as an instructor in A-10 weapons and tactics. In June 1985, he attended USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Upon graduation in June 1986, Brown was assigned to Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, where he served as a test pilot in the A-10 and F-16 aircraft until his selection for the astronaut program. He has logged over 6,000 hours flight time in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in June 1987, Brown completed a one-year training and evaluation program in August 1988, and is qualified for flight assignment as a pilot. Technical assignments have included: involvement in the upgrade of the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS); development of the Flight Data File (FDF); lead of the astronaut launch support team responsible for crew ingress/strap-in prior to launch and crew egress after landing; monitored the refurbishment of OV-102 and OV-103 during ground turnaround processing; lead spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM); Astronaut Office Lead of Shuttle Operations; Deputy Director, Flight Crew Operations Directorate. A veteran of six space flights, Brown has logged over 1,383 hours in space. He was the pilot on STS-47 in 1992, STS-66 in 1994 and STS-77 in 1996, and was spacecraft commander on STS-85 in 1997, STS-95 in 1998, and STS-103 in 1999. Brown retired from NASA to accept a position in the private sector.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-47 Spacelab-J (September 12-20, 1992) was an eight-day cooperative mission between the United States and Japan focused on life science and materials processing experiments in space. After completing 126 orbits of the Earth, the mission ended with Space Shuttle Endeavour landing at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Mission duration was 190 hours, 30 minutes, 23 seconds.

STS-66 (November 3-14, 1994) was the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) mission. ATLAS-3 was part of an ongoing program to determine the Earth's energy balance and atmospheric change over an 11-year solar cycle. Following 175 orbits of the Earth, the 11-day mission ended with the Shuttle Atlantis landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Mission duration was 262 hours and 34 minutes.

STS-77 (May 19-29, 1996) was a ten-day mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The crew performed a record number of rendezvous sequences (one with a SPARTAN satellite and three with a deployed Satellite Test Unit) and approximately 21 hours of formation flying in close proximity of the satellites. During the flight the crew also conducted 12 materials processing, fluid physics and biotechnology experiments in a Spacehab Module. STS-77 deployed and retrieved a SPARTAN satellite, which carried the Inflatable Antenna Experiment designed to test the concept of large, inflatable space structures. A small Satellite Test Unit was also deployed to test the concept of self-stabilization by using aerodynamic forces and magnetic damping. The mission was concluded in 160 Earth orbits, traveling 4.1 million miles in 240 hours and 39 minutes.

STS-85 (August 7-19, 1997) was a 12-day mission during which the crew deployed and retrieved the CRISTA-SPAS payload, operated the Japanese Manipulator Flight Demonstration (MFD) robotic arm, studied changes in the Earth's atmosphere and tested technology destined for use on the future International Space Station. The mission was accomplished in 189 Earth orbits, traveling 4.7 million miles in 284 hours and 27 minutes.

STS-95 (October 29 to November 7, 1998) was a 9-day mission during which the crew supported a variety of research payloads including deployment of the Spartan solar-observing spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, and investigations on space flight and the aging process. The mission was accomplished in 134 Earth orbits, traveling 3.6 million miles in 213 hours and 44 minutes.

STS-103 (December 19-27, 1999) was an 8-day mission during which the crew successfully installed new instruments and upgraded systems on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Enhancing HST scientific capabilities required three space walks. The STS-103 mission was accomplished in 120 Earth orbits, traveling 3.2 million miles in 191 hours and 11 minutes.

Born: November 19, 1958 in Longeville-les-Metz, France

Personal data

Born November 19, 1958, in Longeville-les-Metz, France. He considers Toulouse, France, to be also his adopted hometown. Married to the former Laurence Boulanger. They have two children. He enjoys racquet sports, skill games, canyoning, skiing, and flying activities such as boomerang, frisbee, kites. His parents reside near Paris, France.


Received his baccalauréat from Collège Militaire de Saint Cyr l' Ecole in 1976; passed Math. Sup. and Math. Spé. M' at Prytanée Militaire, La Flèche in 1978. Graduated from Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, in 1981; graduated from Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l' Aéronautique et de l' Espace, Toulouse, in 1983; graduated as a Flight Test Engineer from Ecole du Personnel Navigant d' Essais et de Réception, Istres, in 1987. Clervoy is Ingénieur Général de l'Armement (in the French defense procurement agency DGA).


Member, Association of Space Explorers (ASE). Distinguished member of the French Aeronautics and Astronautics Association (3AF). Permanent member of the Air and Space Academy (ANAE). Corresponding member of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA). Ambassador of the sustainable development park EANA in Normandy. Patron of the marine life preservation nonprofit association 'Te mana o te moana' in French Polynesia.

Special honours

Three NASA Space Flight Medals, two NASA Exceptional Service Medals. Officier de l' ordre national de la Légion d' honneur. Chevalier de l' ordre national du Mérite ; Komarov and Koroliev Awards from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale.


In 1983 Clervoy was seconded from the Délégation Générale pour L' Armement (DGA) to CNES (French Space Agency) where he works on autopilot systems for various projects such as the earth observation satellite SPOT, the optical inter-satellite space link STAR or the comet probe VEGA.

He was selected in the second group of French astronauts in 1985 and started intensive Russian language training. From 1987 until 1992 he directed the parabolic flight program at the Flight Test Center, Brétigny-sur-Orge and provided technical support to the European human space program within the ESA Hermes crew office in Toulouse. From 1983 to 1987, Clervoy was also a lecturer in signal processing and general mechanics at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l' Aéronautique et de l' Espace, Toulouse.

In 1991, he trained in Star City, Moscow, on the Soyuz and Mir systems. In 1992, he joined the astronaut corps of the European Space Agency (ESA) at the European Astronaut Center EAC in Cologne. In august 1992 Clervoy was detached to the NASA Johnson Space Center/ Houston to gain the Space Shuttle mission specialist qualifications. In between his space flights, Clervoy was assigned as flight software verification lead in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL) and as robotics display design lead for Shuttle and Station. After his third spaceflight, he was assigned as the International Space Station display integration lead in the NASA-JSC Astronaut Office.

He flew twice aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis and once aboard Discovery for a total of 675 hours in space.

From 2001 through 2008 he was assigned Senior Advisor Astronaut of the ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle) ESA project in Les Mureaux (France). In 2008, he was also appointed member of the selection board for the new ESA astronaut class.

Clervoy holds military and civilian parachuting licenses, military and civilian scuba-diving licenses, and private pilot license.


Jean-François is author of the book "Histoire(s) d'Espace" telling his mission to the Hubble space telescope.

Spaceflight experience

STS-66 (November 3-14, 1994), the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) mission was part of an ongoing program to determine the Earth's energy balance and atmospheric change over an eleven-year solar cycle. Clervoy used the robotic arm to deploy the CRISTA-SPAS atmospheric research satellite 20 hours after lift-off, and logged 262 hours and 34 minutes in space and 175 earth orbits.

STS-84 (May 15-24, 1997) was NASA's sixth Shuttle mission to rendezvous and dock with the Russian Space Station Mir. Assigned as payload commander, Clervoy's primary tasks were the management of more than 20 experiments, the operation of the docking system and the double module SPACEHAB, and the transfer of 4 tons of equipment between Atlantis and Mir. He was also trained as a contingency spacewalker on this mission. He logged and 221 hours and 20 minutes in space and 144 earth orbits.

STS-103 (December 19 â€" 27, 1999) primary objectives was the repair of the Hubble space telescope, which was put to sleep after successive failures of its gyroscopes, necessary to meet the telescope's very precise pointing requirements. Clervoy was the flight engineer for ascent, space rendezvous and entry. He used the robotic arm to capture and deploy the telescope, and to maneuver his crew mates during each of their three spacewalks lasting each more than eight hours. He logged 191 hours and 11 minutes in space and 120 earth orbits.

Current assignment

Clervoy is a member of ESA's European Astronaut Corps, based at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. As part of his collateral duties, Clervoy provides support to the human spaceflight programme, the communication department and the sustainable development office. He is also Chairman of Novespace, subsidiary of French space agency CNES in charge of the parabolic flight programme based on the A300 Zero-G aircraft in Bordeaux-Mérignac, France.

Born: May 10, 1958 in Los Angeles, California

Ellen Ochoa (Ph.D)

PERSONAL DATA: Born in 1958 in Los Angeles, California, but considers La Mesa, California, to be her hometown. Married to Coe Fulmer Miles of Molalla, Oregon. They have two children. She is a classical flutist and private pilot, and also enjoys volleyball and bicycling. Ellen's mother, Rosanne Ochoa, is deceased. Coe's mother, Georgia Zak, is deceased. His stepfather, Louis Zak, resides in John Day, Oregon.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Grossmont High School, La Mesa, California, in 1975; received a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics from San Diego State University in 1980, and a Master of Science degree and Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University in 1981 and 1985, respectively.

ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Optical Society of America (OSA), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi honor societies.

SPECIAL HONORS: NASA awards include the Distinguished Service Medal, Exceptional Service Medal, Outstanding Leadership Medal, and four Space Flight Medals. Recipient of numerous other awards, including the Harvard Foundation Science Award, Women in Aerospace Outstanding Achievement Award, The Hispanic Engineer Albert Baez Award for Outstanding Technical Contribution to Humanity, the Hispanic Heritage Leadership Award, and San Diego State University Alumna of the Year. She also has two schools named after her: Ellen Ochoa Middle School in Pasco, Washington, and the Ellen Ochoa Learning Center in Cudahy, California.

EXPERIENCE: As a doctoral student at Stanford, and later as a researcher at Sandia National Laboratories and NASA Ames Research Center, Dr. Ochoa investigated optical systems for performing information processing. She is a co-inventor on three patents for an optical inspection system, an optical object recognition method, and a method for noise removal in images. As Chief of the Intelligent Systems Technology Branch at Ames, she supervised 35 engineers and scientists in the research and development of computational systems for aerospace missions. Dr. Ochoa has presented numerous papers at technical conferences and in scientific journals.

Selected by NASA in January 1990, Dr. Ochoa became an astronaut in July 1991. Her technical assignments in the Astronaut Office include serving as the Crew Representative for flight software, computer hardware and robotics, Assistant for Space Station to the Chief of the Astronaut Office, lead spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) in Mission Control, Acting Deputy Chief of the Astronaut Office, Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations, and Director, Flight Crew Operations, where she managed and directed the Astronaut Office and Aircraft Operations. A veteran of four space flights, Dr. Ochoa has logged over 978 hours in space. She was a mission specialist on STS-56 (1993), was the Payload Commander on STS-66 (1994), and was a mission specialist and flight engineer on STS-96 (1999) and STS-110 (2002). Dr. Ochoa currently serves as Director of the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-56 ATLAS-2 Discovery (April 4-17, 1993) was a 9-day mission during which the crew conducted atmospheric and solar studies in order to better understand the effect of solar activity on the Earth's climate and environment. Dr. Ochoa used the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm to deploy and capture the Spartan satellite, which studied the solar corona.

Dr. Ochoa was the Payload Commander on the STS-66 Atlantis Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 mission (November 3-14, 1994). ATLAS-3 continued the series of Spacelab flights to study the energy of the sun during an 11-year solar cycle and to learn how changes in the sun's irradiance affect the earth's climate and environment. Dr. Ochoa used the RMS to retrieve the CRISTA-SPAS atmospheric research satellite at the end of its 8-day free flight.

STS-96 Discovery (May 27 to June 6, 1999) was a 10-day mission during which the crew performed the first docking to the International Space Station, and delivered 4 tons of logistics and supplies in preparation for the arrival of the first crew to live on the station. Dr. Ochoa coordinated the transfer of supplies and also operated the RMS during the 8-hour spacewalk.

STS-110 Atlantis (April 8-19, 2002) was the 13th space shuttle mission to visit the International Space Station. Milestones during the 11-day mission included: the delivery and installation of the S0 (S-Zero) Truss; the first time the station's robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the station; and the first time that all of a space shuttle crew's spacewalks were based from the station's Quest Airlock. Dr. Ochoa, along with Expedition 4 crewmembers Dan Bursch and Carl Walz, operated the station's robotic arm to install S0, and to move crewmembers during three of the four spacewalks.

Born: January 21, 1950 in Danville, Illinois

Joseph R. "Joe" Tanner
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Illinois in 1950. Married. Two children.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Danville High School, Danville, Illinois, in 1968; received a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Illinois in 1973.

SPECIAL HONORS: NASA Distinguished Service Medal. NASA Exceptional Service Medals. NASA Space Flight Medals. NASA Stuart M. Present Flight Achievement Award. JSC Superior Achievement Award. Multiple Group and Team Achievement Awards. Outstanding Alumnus of the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois. Distinguished graduate from Navy Flight Training. Captain of the Swimming Team and "Top 100 Seniors" Award at University of Illinois. Eagle Scout.

EXPERIENCE: Tanner joined the Navy after graduating from the University of Illinois in 1973. He earned his Navy pilot wings in 1975 before serving as an A-7E pilot with Light Attack Squadron 94 (VA-94) aboard the U.S.S. Coral Sea. He finished his active service as an advanced jet instructor pilot with Training Squadron 4 (VT-4) in Pensacola, Florida.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Tanner started working for NASA Johnson Space Center in 1984 as an aerospace engineer and research pilot. His primary flying responsibilities involved teaching the astronaut pilots Space Shuttle landing techniques in the Shuttle Training Aircraft and instructing the pilots and mission specialists in the T-38. In addition to his flying duties, Tanner held positions as the aviation safety officer, the head of the pilot section, and the Deputy Chief of the Aircraft Operations Division (AOD). He has accumulated more than 8,900 hours in military and NASA aircraft.

Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in March 1992, Tanner reported to the Astronaut Office in August 1992. He completed one year of initial training and worked in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory before being assigned to his first mission. Tanner also served as part of the Astronaut Support Personnel team at the Kennedy Space Center, supporting Space Shuttle launches and landings, and as EVA Branch Chief. A veteran of four space flights Tanner has logged over 1069 hours in space, including over 46 EVA hours in 7 space walks. He served as a mission specialist on STS-66 in 1994, STS-82 in 1997, STS-97 in 2000, and STS-115 in 2006.

Tanner retired from NASA in August 2008. Currently Tanner is a Senior Instructor in the University of Colorado Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department in Boulder, Colorado, teaching and mentoring undergraduate and graduate students in space systems design. He is also a self-employed aerospace systems consultant.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: Tanner flew aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-66, November 3-14, 1994, performing the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) mission. ATLAS-3 was the third in a series of flights to study the Earth's atmosphere composition and solar effects at several points during the Sun's 11-year cycle. The mission also carried the CRISTA-SPAS satellite that was deployed to study the chemical composition of the middle atmosphere and retrieved later in the mission. Tanner logged 262 hours and 34 minutes in space and 175 orbits of the Earth.

Tanner performed two space walks as a member of the STS-82 crew to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in February, 1997. The STS-82 crew of 7 launched aboard Space Shuttle Discovery on February 11 and returned to a night landing at Kennedy Space Center on February 21. During the flight the crew completed a total of 5 space walks to improve the science capability of the telescope and replace aging support equipment, restoring HST to near perfect working condition. The crew boosted HST's orbit by 8 nautical miles before releasing it to once again study the universe. Tanner's two space walks totaled 14 hours and 01 minutes. The flight orbited the earth 150 times covering 4.1 million miles in 9 days, 23 hours, 37 minutes.

Tanner's third mission was STS-97 aboard Endeavour (November 30 to December 11, 2000), the fifth Space Shuttle mission dedicated to the assembly of the International Space Station. While docked to the Station, the crew installed the first set of U.S. solar arrays, in addition to delivering supplies and equipment to the station's first resident crew. Tanner performed three space walks totaling 19 hours 20 minutes. Mission duration was 10 days, 19 hours, 57 minutes, and covered 4.47 million miles.

Tanner next served on the crew of STS-115 Atlantis (September 9-21, 2006) which successfully restarted assembly of the International Space Station. During the 12-day mission the crew delivered and installed the massive P3/P4 truss, and two sets of solar arrays that will eventually provide one quarter of the station's power. The crew also performed unprecedented robotic work using the Shuttle's arm. With EVA partner Heide Piper, Tanner made two spacewalks totaling 13 hours and 8 minutes in order to complete truss installation and preparation for solar array and radiator deployment. The mission duration was 11 days, 19 hours and 6 minutes and covered 4.87 million miles.

Born: July 28, 1961 in Little Rock, Arkansas

Scott E. Parazynski (M.D.)
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born July 28, 1961, in Little Rock, Arkansas. He has two beautiful children. He enjoys mountaineering, rock climbing, flying, scuba diving, skiing, travel, woodworking and nature photography. A commercial, multi-engine seaplane and instrument-rated pilot, Dr. Parazynski has logged more than 2,500 flight hours in a variety of aircraft. As a mountaineer, he has scaled major mountains in the Alaska Range, the Cascades, the Rockies, the Andes and the Himalayas. His summits include Cerro Aconcagua (22,841 feet above sea level) and all 59 of Colorado's peaks that are more than 14,000 feet in altitude. After failing to reach the summit of Mount Everest (29,035 feet) in 2008, due to a severe back injury, on May 20, 2009, he became the first astronaut to stand on top of the world.

EDUCATION: Attended junior high school in Dakar, Senegal, and Beirut, Lebanon. Attended high school at the Tehran American School, Iran, and the American Community School, Athens, Greece, graduating in 1979. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from Stanford University in 1983, continuing on to graduate with honors from Stanford Medical School in 1989. He served his medical internship at the Brigham and Women's Hospital of Harvard Medical School (1990). He had completed 22 months of a residency program in emergency medicine in Denver, Colorado, when he was selected for the astronaut corps.

ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association and the Explorers Club. Member of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology, the Wilderness Medical Society, the American Alpine Club, the Association of Space Explorers and the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Chairman of the Board of the Challenger Center for Space Science Education and Trustee of the Houston Museum of Natural Science.

SPECIAL HONORS: National Institutes of Health Predoctoral Training Award in Cancer Biology (1983); Rhodes Scholarship finalist (1984); NASA Graduate Student Researcher's Award (1988); Stanford Medical Scholars Program (1988); Research Honors Award from Stanford Medical School (1989); NASA-Ames Certificate of Recognition (1990); Wilderness Medical Society Research Award (1991); Space Station Team Excellence Award (1996); Vladimir Komarov Diploma from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (1995, 1999); NASA Exceptional Service Medals (1998, 1999); NASA Space Flight Medals (1994, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2007); NASA Distinguished Service Medals (2002, 2009); Ellis Island Family Heritage Award (2005); Flight Achievement Award from the American Astronomical Association (1998, 2008); Aviation Week Laureate Award (2008); Lowell Thomas Award from the Explorers Club (2008); Randolph C. Lovelace Award from the Society of NASA Flight Surgeons (2008); Arkansas Aviation Hall of Fame (2008); National Eagle Scout Association Outstanding Eagle Award (2012).

While in medical school, Dr. Parazynski competed on the United States Development Luge Team and was ranked among the top 10 competitors in the nation during the 1988 Olympic Trials. He also served as an Olympic Team Coach for the Philippines during the 1988 Olympic Winter Games in Calgary, Canada, and later, as Honorary Captain of the United States Olympic Luge Team during the 2010 Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada.

EXPERIENCE: While an undergraduate at Stanford University, Dr. Parazynski studied antigenic variation in African Sleeping Sickness, using sophisticated molecular biological techniques. While in medical school, he was awarded a NASA Graduate Student Fellowship and conducted research at NASA-Ames Research Center on fluid shifts that occur during human spaceflight. Additionally, he has been involved in the design of several exercise devices that are being developed for long-duration spaceflight, and he has conducted research on high-altitude acclimatization. Dr. Parazynski has numerous publications in the field of space physiology and has a particular expertise in human adaptation to stressful environments. He has also invented a number of medical devices and other technologies for life in extreme environments.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected as an astronaut in March 1992, Dr. Parazynski reported to the Johnson Space Center in August 1992. He completed one year of training and evaluation and was qualified as a mission specialist. Dr. Parazynski initially served as one of the crew representatives for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in the Astronaut Office Mission Development Branch. Following his first flight, he was assigned as a backup for the third American long-duration stay aboard Russia's Space Station Mir and was expected to serve as a prime crew member on a subsequent mission. He spent five months in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Star City, Russia. In October 1995, when sitting-height parameters raised concerns about his fitting safely in the Soyuz vehicle in the event of an emergency aboard the Mir station, he was deemed too tall for the mission and was withdrawn from Mir training. He has served as the Astronaut Office crew representative for space shuttle, space station and Soyuz training, as Deputy (Operations and Training) of the Astronaut Office ISS Branch, and as Chief of the Astronaut Office EVA Branch. In the aftermath of the Columbia tragedy, he was the Astronaut Office lead for space shuttle thermal protection system inspection and repair. A veteran of five spaceflights, STS-66 (1994), STS-86 (1997), STS-95 (1998), STS-100 (2001) and STS-120 (2007), Dr. Parazynski has logged more than 1,381 hours (over eight weeks) in space, including more than 47 hours during seven spacewalks, and has traveled more than 23 million miles. Dr. Parazynski retired from NASA in March 2009 to work in private industry and to pursue other entrepreneurial and exploration interests.

SPACEFLIGHT EXPERIENCE: The STS-66 Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) mission launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on November 3, 1994, and returned to land at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on November 14, 1994. ATLAS-3 was part of an on-going program to determine the Earth's energy balance and atmospheric change over an 11-year solar cycle, particularly with respect to humanity's impact on global-ozone distribution. Dr. Parazynski had responsibility for a number of in-orbit activities, including the operation of the ATLAS experiments and Spacelab Pallet, as well as several secondary experiments in the crew cabin. The crew also successfully evaluated the Interlimb Resistance Device, a free-floating exercise he co-invented to prevent musculoskeletal atrophy in microgravity. Space shuttle Atlantis circled the earth 175 times and traveled more than 4.5 million miles during its 262-hour and 34-minute flight.

STS-86 Atlantis (September 25 to October 6, 1997) was the seventh mission to rendezvous and dock with the Russian Space Station Mir. Highlights of the mission included the exchange of U.S. crew members Mike Foale and David Wolf, the transfer of 10,400 pounds of science and logistics and the first shuttle-based joint American-Russian spacewalk. Dr. Parazynski served as the flight engineer (MS2) during the flight and was also the navigator during the Mir rendezvous. Dr. Parazynski (EV1) and Russian cosmonaut Vladimir Titov performed a five-hour and one-minute spacewalk, during which they retrieved four experiment packages that were first deployed during the STS-76 shuttle-Mir docking mission. They also deployed the Spektr Solar Array Cap, which was designed to be used in a future Mir spacewalk to seal a leak in the Spektr module's damaged hull. Other objectives of spacewalk included the evaluation of common spacewalk tools to be used by astronauts wearing either Russian- or American-made spacesuits, and a systems flight test of the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER). Space shuttle Atlantis circled the earth 169 times and traveled more than 4.2 million miles during its 259-hour and 21-minute flight.

STS-95 Discovery (October 29 to November 7, 1998) was a nine-day mission, during which the crew supported a variety of research payloads, including the deployment of the Spartan solar-observing spacecraft and the testing of the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform. The crew also conducted investigations on the correlation between spaceflight and the aging process. Dr. Parazynski was the flight engineer (MS2) for the mission as well as the navigator for the Spartan spacecraft rendezvous. During the flight, he also operated the shuttle's robotic arm in support of the testing of several space-vision systems being considered for station assembly. In addition, he was responsible for monitoring several life sciences investigations, including those involving crewmate Senator John Glenn. The mission was accomplished in 134 Earth orbits, traveling 3.6 million miles in 213 hours and 44 minutes.

STS-100 Endeavour (April 19 to May 1, 2001) was the ninth mission to the International Space Station, during which the crew successfully delivered and installed the space station “Canadarm2” robotic arm, to be used for all future space station assembly and maintenance tasks. Dr. Parazynski conducted two spacewalks with Canadian colleague, Chris Hadfield, to assemble and power the next-generation robotic arm. Additionally, the pair installed a new UHF radio antenna for space‑to‑space communications during space shuttle rendezvous and station spacewalk activity. A critical in-orbit spare, a direct current switching unit, was also transferred to the space station during the 14-hour and 50-minute spacewalk. Also during the flight, Dr. Parazynski operated Endeavour's robotic arm to install, and later remove, the Italian-built “Raffaello” Multi-Purpose Logistics Module. Traveling 4.9 million miles in 283 hours and 30 minutes, the mission was accomplished in 186 Earth orbits.

STS-120 Discovery (October 23 to November 7, 2007) launched from and returned to land at Kennedy Space Center. During the mission, the Node 2 module named “Harmony” was delivered to the International Space Station. This element opened up the capability for future international laboratories to be added to the station. Dr. Parazynski served as EV1 (lead spacewalker) and accumulated more than 27 hours in four spacewalks. One of the major spacewalk mission objectives was the relocation of the P6 solar array from the top of the Z1 truss to the end of the port side of the integrated truss structure. During the IVA-commanded redeploy of the solar array, several array panels snagged and were damaged, requiring an unplanned spacewalk to successfully repair the array. The mission was accomplished in 238 orbits, traveling 6.2 million miles in 15 days, two hours, and 23 minutes.

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