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Commemorative envelope for the West German-funded Spacelab mission, the last successful flight of Challenger, signed by all 8 crew members: Hartsfield, Nagel, Dunbar, Buchli, Bluford, Furrer, Messerschmid and Ockels
Commemorative Envelope Signed: "Hank Hartsfield", "Steve Nagel", "Jim Buchli", "Bonnie J. Dunbar", "Guion S. Bluford", "R. Furrer", "Wubbo Ockels", "E. Messerschmid", 6½x3½. Envelope postmarked Merritt Island, Florida, October 30, 1985. Space shuttle mission STS-61, the 22nd  shuttle mission and the ninth for Challenger, was launched the Kennedy Space Center on October 30, 1985, and returned Edwards Air Force Base on November 6. This was a Spacelab mission, with microgravity scientific projects directed from the German Space Operations Center at Oberpfaffenhofen, near Munich. Challenger also deployed a GLOMAR message relay satellite. HENRY W. HARTSFIELD, JR. was mission Commander, STEVEN R. NAGEL the Pilot. The Mission Specialists were BONNIE J. DUNBAR, JAMES F. BUCHLI and GUION S. BLUFORD. The Payload Specialists, one German, one Austrian, and one Dutch, were REINHARD FURRER, ERNST MESSERSCHMID and WUBBO OCKELS. It was the first flight for Dunbar, and the only one for the three Europeans. This was the largest crew aboard any single spacecraft for the entire period from launch to landing. "Bluford" signature lightly beaded but legible. Otherwise, fine condition.

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Born: June 20, 1945 in New Rockford, North Dakota

James F. Buchli (Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps, Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born June 20, 1945, in New Rockford, North Dakota, but also considers Fargo, North Dakota, as his hometown. Married to the former Jean Oliver of Pensacola, Florida. Two grown children. Recreational interests include skiing, scuba diving, hunting, fishing, and racquetball. His parents, Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Buchli, reside in Fargo, North Dakota. Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. James O. Oliver, reside in Pensacola, Florida.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Fargo Central High School, Fargo, North Dakota, in 1963; received a bachelor of science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the United States Naval Academy in 1967 and a master of science degree in Aeronautical Engineering Systems from the University of West Florida in 1975.

ORGANIZATIONS: Associate member of Naval Academy Alumni, American Legion, Association of Space Explorers, and American Geophysical Union.

SPECIAL HONORS: Recipient of the Defense Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, four NASA Space Flight Medals, NASA Exceptional Service Medal, NASA Distinguished Service Medal, Air Medal, Navy Commendation Medal, Purple Heart, Combat Action Ribbon, Presidential Unit Citation, Navy Unit Citation, a Meritorious Unit Citation, and a Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with the Silver Star.

EXPERIENCE: Buchli received his commission in the United States Marine Corps following graduation from the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1967. He graduated from U.S. Marine Corps Basic Infantry Course and was subsequently sent to the Republic of Vietnam for a 1-year tour of duty, where he served as Platoon Commander, 9th Marine Regiment, and then as Company Commander and Executive Officer, "B" Company, 3rd Company, 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion. He returned to the United States in 1969 for naval flight officer training at Pensacola, Florida, and spent the next 2 years assigned to Marine Fighter/Attack Squadron 122, at Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, and Iwakuni, Japan; and in 1973, he proceeded to duty with Marine Fighter/Attack Squadron 115 at Namphong, Thailand, and Iwakuni, Japan. Upon completing this tour of duty, he again returned to the United States and participated in the Marine Advanced Degree Program at the University of West Florida. He was assigned subsequently to Marine Fighter/Attack Squadron 312 at the Marine Corps Air Station, Beaufort, South Carolina, and in 1977, to the U.S. Test Pilot School, Patuxent River, Maryland.

He has logged over 4,200 hours flying time -- 4,000 hours in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Buchli became a NASA astronaut in August 1979. He was a member of the support crew for STS-1 and STS-2, and On-Orbit CAPCOM for STS-2. A veteran of four space flights, Buchli has orbited the earth 319 times, traveling 7.74 million miles in 20 days, 10 hours, 25 minutes, 32 seconds. He served as a mission specialist on STS-51C (January 24-27, 1995), STS-61A (October 30 to November 6, 1985), STS-29 (March 13-18, 1989), and STS-48 (Sep 12-18, 1991). From March 1989 till May 1992 he also served as Deputy Chief of the Astronaut Office.

On 1 September 1992 Buchli retired from the U.S. Marine Corps and the NASA Astronaut Office to accept a position as Manager, Space Station Systems Operations and Requirements with Boeing Defense and Space Group, Huntsville, Alabama. In April 1993, he was reassigned as Boeing Deputy for Payload Operations, Space Station Freedom Program. Buchli currently serves as Operations & Utilization Manager for Space Station, Boeing Defense and Space Group, Houston, Texas.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS 51-C Discovery, was the first dedicated Department of Defense mission. Launched January 24, 1985, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, STS-51C performed its DOD mission which included deployment of a modified Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) vehicle from the Space Shuttle. Landing occurred on January 27, 1985, after slightly more than three days on orbit. Mission duration was 73 hours, 33 minutes, 27 seconds.

STS-61A Challenger (October 30 to Novenber 6, 1985) was a West German D-1 Spacelab mission, the first to carry eight crew members, the largest crew to fly in space, and the first in which payload activities were controlled from outside the United States. More than 75 scientific experiments were completed in the areas of physiological sciences, materials processing, biology, and navigation. Mission duration was 168 hours, 44 minutes, 51 seconds.

STS-29 Discovery (March 13-18, 1989) was a highly successful five day mission during which the crew deployed a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, and performed numerous secondary experiments, including a space station "heat pipe" radiator experiment, two student experiments, a protein crystal growth experiment, and a chromosome and plant cell division experiment. In addition, the crew took over 3,000 photographs of the earth using several types of cameras, including the IMAX 70 mm movie camera. Mission duration was 119 hours, 39 minutes, 40 seconds.

STS-48 Discovery (September 12-18, 1991) was a five day mission during which the crew deployed the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) designed to provide scientists with their first complete data set on the upper atmosphere's chemistry, winds and energy inputs. The crew also conducted numerous secondary experiments ranging from growing protein crystals, to studying how fluids and structures react in weightlessness. Mission duration was 128 hours, 27 minutes; 34 seconds.

Born: March 28, 1946 in Almelo, the Netherlands

Personal data

Born 28 March 1946, in Almelo, the Netherlands, but considers Groningen, the Netherlands, to be his hometown. He is married and has two children.


Received a degree in physics and mathematics from the University of Groningen in 1973. Completed a Ph.D. thesis on the basis of experimental work at the Nuclear Physics Accelerator Institute (K.V.I.) in Groningen in 1978.


From 1973 to 1978, Wubbo Ockels performed experimental investigations at the Nuclear Physics Accelerator Institute in Groningen. His work concerned the gamma-ray decay of nuclear systems directly after formation and the development of a data-handling system involving design of electronics and programming of real-time software. He also contributed to the design and construction of position-sensitive charged particle detectors. While at the K.V.I. Institute, Ockels supervised the practical work of first-year physics students at the University of Groningen.

In 1978, he was selected by the European Space Agency, as one of three European payload specialists (science astronauts) to train for the Spacelab missions, together with Ulf Merbold and Claude Nicollier. In May 1980, Ockels began the basic astronaut training for mission specialist at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, United States. He successfully completed the training in August 1981 and joined the Spacelab 1 crew for training as a back-up payload specialist for the first mission of ESA's Spacelab. During the mission (28 November â€" 8 December 1983) he served as ground-communicator and liaison-scientist for the crew on board STS-9/Spacelab 1.

From 1986, Wubbo Ockels was stationed at ESA's research and technology centre, ESTEC, in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, where he supported human spaceflights activities. He later became Head of ESA's Education and Outreach Office in Noordwijk. During this time he also held a part-time professorship in Aerospace at the Delft University of Technology.

From September 2003, in close coordination with ESA, he became full-time professor of Aerospace for Sustainable Engineering and Technology at the Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, dealing with the exploitation of alternative sources of energy. Through the professorship Ockels is involved in innovative projects such as the Laddermill and the Nuna solar powered car, twice leading a team of students to victory in the bi-annual World Solar Challenge in Australia in 2001 and 2003.

Born: March 3, 1949 in Sunnyside, Washington

Bonnie J. Dunbar (Ph.D.)

PERSONAL DATA: Born March 3, 1949, in Sunnyside, Washington.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Sunnyside High School, Sunnyside, Washington, in 1967; received bachelor of science and master of science degrees in ceramic engineering from the University of Washington in 1971 and 1975, respectively; and a doctorate in Mechanical/Biomedical Engineering from the University of Houston, 1983. Certified Professional Engineer in Texas.

ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), American Ceramic Society (ACS), the National Institute of Ceramic Engineers (NICE), Tau Beta Pi, Materials Research Society ( MRS), International Academy of Astronautics (IAF), Society of Women Engineers (SWE), Association of Space Explorers (ASE).

SPECIAL HONORS: Associate Fellow, AIAA. Elected to the National Academy of Engineers (2002). American Ceramic Society James I. Mueller Award, Cocoa Beach, Florida. (2000). Inducted into the Women in Technology International (WITI) Hall of Fame in 2000. NASA Space Flight Medals (1985, 1990, 1992, 1995 and 1998). Superior Accomplishment Award (1997). Member, National Science Foundation (NSF) Engineering Advisory Board, 1993-1999. NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal(1996). NASA Outstanding Leadership Award (1993). Fellow of American Ceramic Society (1993). Design News Engineering Achievement Award (1993). IEEE Judith Resnik Award (1993). Society of Women Engineers Resnik Challenger Medal (1993). Museum of Flight Pathfinder Award (1992). AAES National Engineering Award (1992). NASA Exceptional Service Award (1991). University of Houston Distinguished Engineering Alumna (1991). M.R.S. President's Award (1990). ACS Schwaltzwalder P.A.C.E. Award (1990). University of Washington Engineering Alumni Achievement (1989). NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1988). ACS Life Membership (1986). General Jimmy Doolittle Fellow of the Aerospace Education Foundation (1986). American Ceramic Society (ACS) Greaves-Walker Award (1985). Rockwell International Engineer of the Year in 1977.

EXPERIENCE: Following graduation in 1971, Dr. Dunbar worked for Boeing Computer Services for two years as a systems analyst. From 1973 to 1975, she conducted research for her master's thesis in the field of mechanisms and kinetics of ionic diffusion in sodium beta-alumina. In 1975, she conducted research at Harwell Laboratories in Oxford, England. Her work there involved the wetting behavior of liquids on solid substrates. Following her work in England, she accepted a senior research engineer position with Rockwell International Space Division in Downey, California. Her responsibilities included developing equipment and processes for the manufacture of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system in Palmdale, California. She also represented Rockwell International as a member of the Dr. Kraft Ehricke evaluation committee on prospective space industrialization concepts. Dr. Dunbar completed her doctorate at the University of Houston in Houston, Texas. Her multi-disciplinary dissertation (materials science and physiology) involved evaluating the effects of simulated space flight on bone strength and fracture toughness. Dr. Dunbar has served as an adjunct assistant professor in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Houston.

Dr. Dunbar is a private pilot with over 200 hours in single engine land aircraft, has logged more than 1000 hours flying time in T-38 jets as co-pilot, and has over 100 hours as co-pilot in a Cessna Citation Jet.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Dr. Dunbar accepted a position as a payload officer/flight controller at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in 1978. She served as a guidance and navigation officer/flight controller for the Skylab reentry mission in 1979 and was subsequently designated project officer/payload officer for the integration of several Space Shuttle payloads.

Dr. Dunbar became a NASA astronaut in August 1981. Her technical assignments have included verification of Shuttle flight software at the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL), serving as a member of the Flight Crew Equipment Control Board, participation as a member of the Astronaut Office Science Support Group, and supporting operational development of the remote manipulator system (RMS). She has served as chief of the Mission Development Branch. In 1993, Dr. Dunbar served as Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. In February 1994, she lived in Star City, Russia, for 13-months training as a back-up crew member for a 3-month flight on the Russian Space Station, Mir. In March 1995, she was certified by the Russian Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center as qualified to fly on long duration Mir Space Station flights. From October 1995 to November 1996, she was detailed to the NASA JSC Mission Operations Directorate as Assistant Director where she was responsible for chairing the International Space Station Training Readiness Reviews, and facilitating Russian/American operations and training strategies. From June 1998 to July 2003 she served as Assistant Director to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) with a focus on University Research. From October 2003 until January 2005, she was Deputy Associate Director for Biological Sciences and Applications. From Januaryâ€"September 2005 she served as Associate Director, Technology Integration and Risk Management. Dr. Dunbar retired from NASA in September 2005 to serve as President and CEO of the Seattle Museum of Flight, Seattle, Washington.

A veteran of five space flights, Dr. Dunbar has logged more than 1,208 hours (50 days) in space. She served as a mission specialist on STS 61-A in 1985, STS-32 in 1990, and STS-71 in 1995, and was the Payload Commander on STS-50 in 1992, and STS-89 in 1998.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS 61-A Challenger (October 30-November 6, 1985), was the West German D-1 Spacelab mission. It was the first to carry eight crew members, and was also the first in which payload activities were controlled in Germany. More than 75 scientific experiments were completed in the areas of physiological sciences, materials science, biology, and navigation. During the flight, Dr. Dunbar was responsible for operating Spacelab and its subsystems and performing a variety of experiments. Her mission training included six months of experiment training in Germany, France, Switzerland, and The Netherlands. STS 61-A launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and returned to land at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Mission duration was 7 days, 44 minutes 51 seconds.

STS-32 Columbia (January 9-20, 1990), launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and returned to a night landing at Edwards Air Base in California. During the flight, the crew successfully deployed the Syncom IV-F5 satellite, and retrieved the 21,400-pound Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) using the RMS. They also operated a variety of middeck experiments including the Microgravity Disturbance Experiment (MDE) using the Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA), Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), American Flight Echocardiograph (AFE), Latitude/Longitude Locator (L3), Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE), Characterization of Neurospora Circadian Rhythms (CNCR),and the IMAX Camera. Dr. Dunbar was prime operator for the RMS retrieval of LDEF, and was principal investigator for the MDE/FEA Experiment. Additionally, numerous medical test objectives, including in-flight lower body negative pressure (LBNP), in-flight aerobic exercise and muscle performance were conducted to evaluate human adaptation to extended duration missions. Mission duration was 10 days, 21 hours, 01 minute, 38 seconds.

STS-50 Columbia (June 25 to July 9, 1992). Dr. Dunbar was the Payload Commander on STS-50, the United States Microgravity Lab-1 mission which was dedicated to microgravity fluid physics, materials science and life sciences. Over 30 experiments sponsored by over 100 U.S. investigators were housed in the “Spacelab” in the Shuttle's Payload Bay. A payload crew of four operated around-the-clock for 13 days performing experiments in scientific disciplines such as protein crystal growth, electronic and infrared detector crystal growth, surface tension physics, zeolite crystal growth, and human physiology. Mission duration was 13 days, 19 hours, 30 minutes and 4 seconds.

STS-71 Atlantis (June 27 to July 7, 1995), was the first Space Shuttle mission to dock with the Russian Space Station Mir, and involved an exchange of crews. The Atlantis was modified to carry a docking system compatible with the Russian Mir Space Station. Dr. Dunbar served as MS-3 on this flight which also carried a Spacelab module in the payload bay in which the crew performed medical evaluations on the returning Mir crew. These evaluations included ascertaining the effects of weightlessness on the cardio/vascular system, the bone/muscle system, the immune system, and the cardio/pulmonary system. Mission duration was 9 days, 19 hours, 23 minutes and 8 seconds, traveling 4.1 million miles in 153 orbits of the earth.

STS-89 Endeavour (January 22-31, 1998), was the eighth Shuttle-Mir docking mission during which the crew transferred more than 9,000 pounds of scientific equipment, logistical hardware and water from Space Shuttle Endeavour to Mir. Dr. Dunbar was the Payload Commander, responsible for all payload activities including the conduct of 23 technology and science experiments. In the fifth and last exchange of a U.S. astronaut, STS-89 delivered Andy Thomas to Mir and returned with David Wolf. Mission duration was 8 days, 19 hours and 47 seconds.

Born: November 21, 1933 in Birmingham, Alabama
Died: July 17, 2014 in Houston, Texas

Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr. (Mr.)
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Birmingham, Alabama, on November 21, 1933. Married to the former Judy Frances Massey of Princeton, North Carolina. They have two grown daughters.

EDUCATION: Graduated from West End High School, Birmingham, Alabama; received a bachelor of science degree in physics at Auburn University in 1954; performed graduate work in physics at Duke University and in astronautics at the Air Force Institute of Technology; and awarded a master of science degree in engineering science from the University of Tennessee in 1971.

SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded the Air Force Meritorious Service Medal; the General Thomas D. White Space Trophy for 1973 (1974). Inducted into Alabama Aviation Hall of Fame (1983). Distinguished Civilian Service Award (DOD) (1982). NASA Distinguished Service Medals (1982, 1988). NASA Space Flight Medals (1982, 1984, 1985). NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1988). Honorary Doctor of Science degree from Auburn University (1986). Presidential Rank of Meritorious Executive in the Senior Executive Service (1996).

EXPERIENCE: Hartsfield received his commission through the Reserve Officer Training Program (ROTC) at Auburn University. He entered the Air Force in 1955, and his assignments have included a tour with the 53rd Tactical Fighter Squadron in Bitburg, Germany. He is also a graduate of the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, and was an instructor there prior to his assignment in 1966 to the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) Program as an astronaut. After cancellation of the MOL Program in June 1969, he was reassigned to NASA.

He has logged over 7,400 hours flying time -- of which over 6,150 hours are in the following jet aircraft: F-86, F-100, F-104, F-105, F-106, T-33, and T-38.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Hartsfield became a NASA astronaut in September 1969. He was a member of the astronaut support crew for Apollo 16 and served as a member of the astronaut support crew for the Skylab 2, 3, and 4 missions.

Hartsfield retired in August 1977 from the United States Air Force with more than 22 years of active service but continues his assignment as a NASA astronaut in a civilian capacity. He was a member of the orbital flight test missions group of the astronaut office and was responsible for supporting the development of the Space Shuttle entry flight control system and its associated interfaces.

Hartsfield served as backup pilot for STS-2 and STS-3, Columbia's second and third orbital flight tests. A veteran of three space flights, Hartsfield has logged 483 hours in space. He served as the pilot on STS-4 (June 27 to July 4, 1982), and was the spacecraft commander on STS-41D (August 30 to September 5, 1984) and STS-61A (October 30 to November 6 1985).

From 1986 to 1987 Mr. Hartsfield served as the Deputy Chief of the Astronaut Office. In 1987, he became the Deputy Director for Flight Crew Operations, supervising the activities of the Astronaut Office and the Aircraft Operations Division at the Johnson Space Center.

In 1989, he accepted a temporary assignment in the Office of Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. There he served as Director of the Technical Integration and Analysis Division reporting directly to the Associate Administrator for Space Flight. In this assignment he was responsible for facilitating the integration of the Space Station and its unique requirements into the Space Shuttle systems. His office also served as a technical forum for resolving technical and programmatic issues.

In 1990, Mr. Hartsfield accepted another temporary assignment as the Deputy Manager for Operations, Space Station Projects Office, at the Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama. In that capacity he was responsible for the planning and management of Space Station Operations and Utilization Capability Development and operations activities including budget preparation. Later in that assignment he also acted as the Deputy Manager for the Space Station Projects Office.

In 1991, Mr. Hartsfield accepted the position of the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) Phase Manager, Space Station Freedom Program and Operations (SSFPO), with a duty station at the Johnson Space Center. Reporting directly to the Deputy Director, SSFPO, he represented the Deputy Director in providing appropriate program guidance and direction to the Space Shuttle Program, and across the Space Station Freedom Program for all MTC phase mission unique activities to assure appropriate resolution of issues.

In December 1993, Mr. Hartsfield accepted the position of Manager, International Space Station Independent Assessment. In this capacity he reports directly to the Associate Administrator for Safety and Mission Assurance and manages and focuses the oversight activities and assessment of the International Space Station Alpha Program.

In September 1996, the scope of Mr. Hartsfield's work was expanded to include independent assessment of the programs and projects of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise and he was named Director, HEDS Independent Assurance.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-4, the fourth and final orbital test flight of the Shuttle Columbia, launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 27 June 1982. He accompanied Thomas K. Mattingly (spacecraft commander) on this seven-day mission designed to: further verify ascent and entry phases of Shuttle missions; perform continued studies of the effects of long-term thermal extremes on the Orbiter subsystems; and conduct a survey of Orbiter-induced contamination on the Orbiter payload bay. Additionally, the crew operated several scientific experiments located in the Orbiter's cabin as well as in the payload bay. These experiments included the Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), designed to investigate the separation of biological materials in a fluid according to their surface electrical charge. The crew was credited with effecting an in-flight repair which enabled them to activate the first operational "Getaway Special" which was comprised of nine experiments that ranged from algae and duckweed growth in space, to fruit fly and brine shrimp genetic studies. STS-4 completed 112 orbits of the Earth before landing on a concrete runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on July 4, 1982. Mission duration was 169 hours 11 minutes, 11 seconds.

STS-41D launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on August 30, 1984. The crew included Mike Coats (pilot), Judy Resnik, Steve Hawley, and Mike Mullane (mission specialists), and Charlie Walker (payload specialist). This was the maiden flight of the Orbiter Discovery. During the six-day mission the crew successfully activated the OAST-1 solar cell wing experiment, deployed three satellites, SBS-D, SYNCOM IV-2, and TELSTAR 3-C, operated the CFES-III experiment, the student crystal growth experiment, and photography experiments using the IMAX motion picture camera. The crew earned the name "Icebusters" when Hartsfield successfully removed a hazardous ice-buildup from the Orbiter using the Remote Manipulator System. STS-41D completed 96 orbits of the Earth before landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on September 5, 1984. Mission duration was 144 hours, 56 minutes, 4 seconds.

STS-61A, the West German D-1 Spacelab mission, launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on October 30, 1985. The crew included Steve Nagel (pilot), Jim Buchli, Guy Bluford and Bonnie Dunbar (mission specialists), and Reinhard Furrer, Ernst Messerschmid, and Wubbo Ockels (payload specialists). The seven-day mission was the first with eight crew members, and the first Spacelab science mission planned and controlled by a foreign customer. More than 75 scientific experiments were completed in the areas of physiological sciences, materials processing, biology, and navigation. After completing 111 orbits of the Earth, STS-61A landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on November 6, 1985. Mission duration was 168 hours, 44 minutes, 51 seconds.

Born: October 27, 1946 in Canton, Illinois
Died: August 21, 2014 in Columbia, Missouri

Steven R. Nagel (Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born October 27, 1946, in Canton, Illinois. Married to Linda M. Godwin of Houston, Texas. Two daughters. His hobbies include sport flying and astronomy.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Canton Senior High School, Canton, Illinois, in 1964; received a bachelor of science degree in aerospace engineering (high honors) from the University of Illinois in 1969 and a master of science degree in mechanical engineering from California State University, Fresno, California, in 1978.

ORGANIZATIONS: Order of Daedalians, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Association of Space Explorers.

SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded the Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal with 7 Oak Leaf Clusters; for undergraduate pilot training, recipient of the Commander's Trophy, the Flying Trophy, the Academic Trophy and the Orville Wright Achievement Award (Order of Daedalians). Also presented the Air Force Meritorious Service Medal (1978). Recipient of four NASA Space Flight Medals (1985, 1991, 1993); Exceptional Service Medals (1988, 1989); Outstanding Leadership Medal (1992); AAS Flight Achievement Award, STS-37 Crew (1992); Outstanding Alumni Award, University of Illinois (1992); Distinguished Service Medal (1994), Distinguished Alumni Award, California State University, Fresno (1994) and Lincoln Laureate, State of Illinois (1994).

EXPERIENCE: Nagel received his commission in 1969 through the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) program at the University of Illinois. He completed undergraduate pilot training at Laredo Air Force Base, Texas, in February 1970, and subsequently reported to Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, for F-100 training.

From October 1970 to July 1971, Nagel was an F-100 pilot with the 68th Tactical Fighter Squadron at England Air Force Base, Louisiana. He served a 1-year tour of duty as a T-28 instructor for the Laotian Air Force at Udorn RTAFB, Udorn, Thailand, prior to returning to the United States in October 1972 to assume A-7D instructor pilot and flight examiner duties at England Air Force Base, Louisiana. Nagel attended the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from February to December 1975. In January 1976, he was assigned to the 6512th Test Squadron located at Edwards. As a test pilot, he worked on various projects, including flying the F-4 and A-7D.

He has logged 12,600 hours flying time; 9,640 hours in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Nagel became a NASA astronaut in August 1979. His technical assignments have included backup T‑38 chase pilot for STS-1; support crew and backup entry spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) for STS-2; support crew and primary entry CAPCOM for STS-3; software verification at the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL) and the Flight Simulation Laboratory (FSL); representative of the Astronaut Office in the development of a crew escape system for the space shuttle and acting chief of the astronaut office. Nagel is a veteran of four space flights (STS-51G and STS-61 in 1985, STS-37 in 1991 and STS-55 in 1993) as described below.

Nagel first flew as a mission specialist on STS-51G, which launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on June 17, 1985. The crew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery deployed communications satellites for Mexico (Morelos), the Arab League (Arabsat) and the United States (AT&T Telstar). They used the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to deploy and later retrieve the SPARTAN satellite, which performed 17 hours of x-ray astronomy experiments while separated from the space shuttle. In addition, the crew activated the Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF) and six “Getaway Specials,” participated in biomedical experiments and conducted a laser tracking experiment as part of the Strategic Defense Initiative. After completing approximately 170 hours of space flight, Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on June 24, 1985.

Nagel then flew as pilot on STS-61A, the West German D-1 Spacelab mission, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on October 30, 1985. This mission was the first in which payload activities were controlled from outside the United States. More than 75 scientific experiments were completed in the areas of physiological sciences, materials processing, biology and navigation. After completing 111 orbits of the Earth, Space Shuttle Challenger landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on November 6, 1985.

On his third flight, Nagel was commander of STS-37, which launched into orbit on April 5, 1991, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and landed on April 11, 1991, at Edwards Air Force Base, California. During this mission, the crew aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis deployed the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) for the purpose of exploring gamma ray sources throughout the universe and conducted the first scheduled spacewalk in more than 5.5 years. Also, the crew performed the first successful unscheduled spacewalk to free a stuck antenna on GRO.

Nagel also served as commander of STS-55, the German D-2 Spacelab mission. After launching on April 26, 1993, on the Shuttle Columbia, the crew landed 10 days later on May 6, 1993, at Edwards Air Force Base, California. During the ambitious mission, 89 experiments were performed in many disciplines, such as materials processing, life sciences, robotics, technology, astronomy and earth mapping.

With the completion of his fourth flight, Nagel has logged a total of 723 hours in space.

Nagel retired from the Air Force effective February 28, 1995. He retired from the Astronaut Office effective March 1, 1995, to assume the full-time position of deputy director for operations development, Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance Office, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. In September 1996, Nagel transferred to the Aircraft Operations Division where he performed duties as a research pilot, chief of aviation safety and deputy division chief. He retired from NASA on May 31, 2011.

Born: May 21, 1945 in Reutlingen, Germany

Reutlingen, Germany, 21 May 1945

Married to Gudrun M.

Ernst Messerschmid graduated from Technisches Gymnasium, Stuttgart, Germany in 1965. He then studied physics at the University of Tübingen and Bonn in 1967 to 1972. After graduating, E. Messerschmid worked as a CERN Fellow (1972-1975) and as a research assistant at the University of Freiburg/Breisgau where he received his Doctor's degree (1976). His doctoral thesis was on "Longitudinal Instabilities of Relativistic Proton Beams in Synchrotrons".

Recreational interests
Music, sailing, and outdoor activities such as golf, gardening

As a result of his time at CERN (visiting scientist, 1970; Fellow, 1972-1975), in 1977, E. Messerschmid worked as a researcher at DESY, Hamburg, when he became interested in space technology and utilisation, and consequently participated as a German astronaut candidate in the first ESA astronaut selection campaign. Following this, in 1978, he joined the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, where he worked in the area of satellite-based search and rescue communication systems.

In 1983, E. Messerschmid was selected as a science astronaut based at DLR in Cologne, Germany. After science training conducted at different universities and industrial laboratories, and after his subsequent flight training at ESA and NASA, he was assigned as a crewmember of the German Spacelab Mission D1 in 1985.

Since November 1986, Messerschmid has been Professor and Director of the Space Systems Institute (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart. He held various high ranking positions as Chairman of a Collaborative Research Center and was responsible for a variety of research activities at University institutes, industry and DLR laboratories.

At Stuttgart University, Messerschmid was Dean of the Aerospace faculty from 1990 to 1992 and Vice-President (Provost) from 1996 to 1998.

From 2000 to 2004 E. Messerschmid was Head of the European Astronaut Centre (EAC), in Cologne, Germany.

Ernst Messerschmid has now left ESA and returned to his Professorship in Astronautics and Space Stations at the Institute of Space Systems University of Stuttgart.


30.10.1985: German Spacelab Mission D1 (7-day spaceflight STS-61A with Challenger). Experiments in fluid physics, material science, biology, medicine and navigation.

1988 â€" 1992: Teaching of German (D2, MIR'92 Mission) and ESA astronauts on Space Systems Engineering, Chairman of Selection Committee for German astronauts.

Since 1990: Teaching at Ecole Nationale Superieure de l'Aeronautique et de l'Espace, Toulouse and the International Space University ISU Strasbourg on Space Stations and Platforms.

1989 - 1999: Chairman of Collaborative Research Center (SFB 259) on High Temperature Problems of Re-usable Space Transportation Systems, Stuttgart, including 12 institutes from universities, DLR and industry.

1990 - 1992: Dean of Aerospace Faculty, University of Stuttgart; Deputy in the preceeding and following year.

1994 - 1996: Chairman of Space Segment Advisory Group (SSAG) for ESA Telecommunications Directorate

1994 â€" 2000: Member of ESA Space Station Utilization Panel (SSUP)

1995 - 1997: Chairman of DARA (German Space Agency) Advisory Group for Utilisation of the International Space Station, member of DARA advisory panels on Space Transportation Systems, Space Telecommunications and Navigation Systems

1996 - 1998: Vice-President Stuttgart University, in particular responsible for Research and Technology

1998 â€" 2000: CEO of Technology Transfer Initiative GmbH of University of Stuttgart

2000 - 2004: Head of the European Astronaut Centre (EAC), in Cologne, Germany.

Dutch Royal Academy of Science (since 1985), German Aerospace Society DGLR (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt) Corresponding Member (1986), DGLR Board of Directors (1989-94), Member International Academy of Astronautics IAA (1989), Member Association of Space Explorers (ASE; since 1986), ASE Executive Committee (1989-92), German Space Agency DARA (Deutsche Agentur für Raumfahrtangelegenheiten) Advisory Board (1990-94), American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics AIAA, Affiliate Member (1994).

Ca. 140, most of them are published in journals and conference proceedings; holder of 10 patents, author and co-author of 10 books, the latest on "Space Stations - Systems and Utilization" (by Springer Publisher, March 1999).

Special honours
Science Award of Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft in Freiburg im Breisgau (1976), NASA Space Flight Medal (1985), NASA Flight Achievement Award (1986), German Cross of Merit First Class (1985), Medal of Merit of Federal State Baden-Württemberg (1986), Golden Hermann Oberth Medal (1986), Reinhard-Furrer-Award of DARA (1997), Officier dans l'Ordre des Palmes Académiques (2001).

Born: November 25, 1940 in Wörgl, Austria
Died: September 9, 1995 in Johannisthal Air Field, Berlin

Reinhard Furrer (Ph.D.)
Payload Specialist (Deceased)

PERSONAL DATA: Born November 25, 1940, in Worgl, Austria. Single. He was a commercial pilot and held all sailing licences. He enjoyed open water dives and photographic exhibitions. Dr. Furrer died in an airplane accident on September 9, 1995.

EDUCATION: Realgymnasium at Kempten, Allgau. Studied physics at the Universities of Kiel and Berlin. Received a diploma in physics in 1969, and a doctor of philosophy degree in physics in 1972.

PROFESSION: University Teacher, Free University Berlin; and Scientist Astronaut at the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DFVLR).

ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the German Physics Society.

PUBLICATIONS: Published about 50 papers in international journals and international conferences.


1974, Sabbatical at the University of Stuttgart. Research Associate, Free University of Berlin.

1979, Assistant professor of Physics

1980-1981, Visiting Scientist of the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory, USA.

1983, Scientist Astronaut of the German Spacelab Mission "D-1".

Practical research in the following fields: Atomic physics (highly ionized noble gasses), solid-state physics (single crystals of inorganic and organic materials), chemical physics and photophysics (solid-state photoreactions, photosynthesis), and biophysics (structural analysis of enzymes)

Applied experimental methods: Optical spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy, HF-spectroscopy, Optically detected magnetic resonances, electron-spin-echoes, and transient electron spin mutations.

Teaching experience: Lectured in experimental physics and supervised undergraduate and graduate students. Public lecture series "The Arthur Compton Lectures" at the University of Chicago.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: Dr. Furrer flew as a payload specialist on the crew of STS-61A Challenger (October 30 to November 6, 1985). STS-61A was the West German D-1 Spacelab mission. It was the first to carry eight crew members, the largest to fly in space, and was also the first in which payload activities were controlled from outside the United States. More than 75 scientific experiments were completed in the areas of physiological sciences, materials science, biology, and navigation. At mission conclusion Dr. Furrer had traveled 2.5 million miles in 110 Earth orbits and had logged over 168 hours in space.

Film Credits
1998 Erich von Däniken - 30 Jahre Erinnerungen an die Zukunft (Other), 1986 Knoff-Hoff-Show (in person)

Born: November 22, 1942 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Guion S. Bluford, Jr. (Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Retired)
NASA Astronaut (Former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 22, 1942. Married to the former Linda Tull of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They have two grown children. Hobbies include reading, swimming, jogging, racquetball, handball, scuba diving and golf.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Overbrook Senior High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1960; received a bachelor of science degree in aerospace engineering from Pennsylvania State University in 1964; a master of science degree with distinction in aerospace engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1974; a doctor of philosophy in aerospace engineering with a minor in laser physics from the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1978 and a master in business administration from the University of Houston, Clear Lake, in 1987. He has also attended the University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School of Business.

PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS: Fellow, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; Board of Governors, National Space Club ( 1997 to 2001); Board of Directors, National Inventor's Hall of Fame Foundation (1997 to 2002); Board of Directors, The Western Reserve Historical Society (1997 to 2003); Board of Directors, The Great Lakes Science Center (1997 to 2003); National Research Council (NRC) Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, (1993 to 1998); Board of Directors, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, (1995 to 2001); Board of Directors, U.S. Space Foundation (2000 to 2006); Life Director; Board of Directors, ENSCO Inc., (2005 to present); Board of Trustees, The Aerospace Corporation (1999 to 2008); Executive Director of Investigative Activities, Columbia Accident Investigation Board (2003); Society of Distinguished Alumni, Pennsylvania State University (1986 to present); Committee on Minority Activities, College of Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (1986 to 2006); Leadership Cleveland (1995 to present); Board of Visitors, Hiram College, (2004 to 2009); Board of Advisors, Coalition for Space Exploration (2006 to 2010); Tau Beta Pi; Omicron Delta Kappa; Sigma Iota Epsilon; National Technical Association and Tuskegee Airmen.

SPECIAL HONORS: Presented the Leadership Award of Phi Delta Kappa (1962); the National Defense Service Medal (1965); the Vietnam Campaign Medal (1967); the Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm (1967); the Vietnam Service Medal (1967); Ten Air Force Air Medals (1967); Three Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards (1967, 1970 and 1972); the German Air Force Aviation Badge from the Federal Republic of West Germany (1969); the T-38 Instructor Pilot of the Month (1970); the Air Training Command Outstanding Flight Safety Award (1970); the Air Force Commendation Medal (1972); the Air Force Institute of Technology's Mervin E. Gross Award (1974); Who's Who Among Black Americans (1975 to 1977); the Air Force Meritorious Service Award (1978); the National Society of Black Engineers Distinguished National Scientist Award (1979); four NASA Group Achievement Awards (1980, 1981, 1989, and 2003); the Pennsylvania State University Alumni Association's Distinguished Alumni Award (1983), the Alumni Fellows Award (1986); the USAF Command Pilot Astronaut Wings (1983); NASA Space Flight Medals (1983, 1985, 1991 and 1992); the Ebony Black Achievement Award (1983); NAACP Image Award (1983); the City of Philadelphia's Philadelphia Bowl (1983); Who's Who in America (1983 to present); the Pennsylvania Distinguished Service Medal (1984); the Defense Superior Service Medal (1984); three Defense Meritorious Service Medals (1986, 1992 and 1993); New York City Urban League's Whitney Young Memorial Award; 1991 Black Engineer of the Year Award; NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1992); National Intelligence Medal of Achievement (1993); Federation Aeronautique International Komarov Diploma (1993); Legion of Merit (1993); NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1994); International Space Hall of Fame inductee (1997); U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame inductee (2010); Air Force Institute of Technology Distinguished Alumni Award (2002); University of Houston, Clear Lake Distinguished Alumni Award (2003); The Pennsylvania Society Gold Medal (2011) and honorary doctorate degrees from Florida A&M University, Texas Southern University, Virginia State University, Morgan State University, Stevens Institute of Technology, Tuskegee Institute, Bowie State College, Thomas Jefferson University, Chicago State University, Georgian Court College, Drexel University, Kent State University, Central State University and the University of the Sciences.

EXPERIENCE: Bluford graduated from Penn State University in 1964 as a distinguished Air Force ROTC graduate.

He attended pilot training at Williams Air Force Base, Arizona, and received his pilot wings in January 1966. He then went to F 4C combat crew training in Arizona and Florida and was assigned to the 557th Tactical Fighter Squadron, Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam. He flew 144 combat missions, 65 of which were over North Vietnam.

In July 1967, he was assigned to the 3630th Flying Training Wing, Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas, as a T-38A instructor pilot. He served as a standardization/evaluation officer and as an assistant flight commander. In early 1971, he attended Squadron Officers School and returned as an executive support officer to the Deputy Commander of Operations and as School Secretary for the Wing.

In August 1972, he entered the Air Force Institute of Technology residency school at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Upon graduating in 1974, he was assigned to the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, as a staff development engineer. He served as Deputy for Advanced Concepts for the Aeromechanics Division and as Branch Chief of the Aerodynamics and Airframe Branch in the Laboratory. Bluford has written and presented several scientific papers in the area of computational fluid dynamics.

He has logged more than 5,200 hours jet flight time in the T-33, T-37, T-38, F-4C, F-15, U-2/TR-1 and F-5A/B, including 1,300 hours as a T-38 instructor pilot. He also has an FAA commercial pilot license and is a certified scuba diver.

Bluford left NASA in July 1993 and retired from the Air Force to take the post of Vice President/General Manager, Engineering Services Division, NYMA Inc., Greenbelt, Maryland. In May, 1997, he became Vice President of the Aerospace Sector of Federal Data Corporation and, in October, 2000, Bluford became the Vice President of Microgravity R&D and Operations for the Northrop Grumman Corporation. In September 2002, he became President of the Aerospace Technology Group, an engineering consulting organization in Cleveland, Ohio.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Bluford became a NASA astronaut in August 1979. His technical assignments have included working with space station operations, the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), Spacelab systems and experiments, space shuttle systems, payload safety issues and verifying flight software in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL) and in the Flight Systems Laboratory (FSL). A veteran of four space flights, Bluford was a mission specialist on STS-8, STS 61-A, STS-39 and STS-53.

Bluford's first mission was STS-8, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on August 30, 1983. This was the third flight for the orbiter Challenger and the first mission with a night launch and night landing. During the mission, the STS-8 crew deployed the Indian National Satellite (INSAT-1B), operated the Canadian-built RMS with the Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA), operated the Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) with live cell samples, conducted medical measurements to understand biophysiological effects of spaceflight and activated four "Getaway Special" canisters. STS-8 completed 98 orbits of the Earth in 145 hours before landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on September 5, 1983.

Bluford then served on the crew of STS 61-A, the German D-1 Spacelab mission, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on October 30, 1985. This mission was the first to carry eight crew members, the largest crew to fly in space, and included three European payload specialists. This was the first dedicated Spacelab mission under the direction of the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DFVLR) and the first U.S. mission in which payload control was transferred to a foreign country (German Space Operations Center, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany). During the mission, the Global Low Orbiting Message Relay Satellite (GLOMR) was deployed from a "Getaway Special" (GAS) container, and 76 experiments were performed in Spacelab in such fields as fluid physics, materials processing, life sciences, and navigation. After completing 111 orbits of the Earth in 169 hours, Challenger landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on November 6, 1985.

Bluford also served on the crew of STS-39, which launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on April 28, 1991, aboard the orbiter Discovery. The crew gathered aurora, Earth-limb, celestial, and shuttle environment data with the AFP-675 payload. This payload consisted of the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A) experiment, Far Ultraviolet Camera experiment (FAR UV), the Uniformly Redundant Array (URA), the Quadrupole Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (QINMS), and the Horizon Ultraviolet Program (HUP) experiment. The crew also deployed and retrieved the SPAS-II which carried the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) experiment. The crew also operated the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1) and deployed a classified payload from the Multi-Purpose Experiment Canister (MPEC). After completing 134 orbits of the Earth and 199 hours in space, Discovery landed at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on May 6, 1991.

On his last flight, Bluford served on the crew of STS-53 which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on December 2, 1992. The crew of five deployed the classified Department of Defense payload DOD-1 and then performed several Military-Man-in-Space and NASA experiments. After completing 115 orbits of the Earth in 175 hours, Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on December 9, 1992.

With the completion of his fourth flight, Bluford has logged over 688 hours in space.

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