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VICE PRESIDENT HANNIBAL HAMLIN - AUTOGRAPH CO-SIGNED BY: BRIGADIER GENERAL JAMES SHIELDS, ANDREW PERKINS BUTLER, SOLOMON WEATHERSBEE DOWNS, PIERRE SOULE, STEPHEN A. "LITTLE GIANT" DOUGLAS, DANIEL STURGEON, JAMES WHITCOMB - HFSID 295786

UNITED STATES SENATE IN THE 30th CONGRESS (1847-1849) Signature of eight Senators, including Lincoln's future Vice President Hannibal Hamlin Signatures: "S W Downs/of La.", "A. P. Butler/ Edgefield/ So Car", "James Shields - Ill", "S. A.

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UNITED STATES SENATE IN THE 30th CONGRESS (1847-1849) Signature of eight Senators, including Lincoln's future Vice President Hannibal Hamlin Signatures: "S W Downs/of La.", "A. P. Butler/ Edgefield/ So Car", "James Shields - Ill", "S. A. Douglas/ Chicago/ Illinois"; also signed on verso "Pierre Soulé", "Jas Whitcomb", "H. Hamlin/Maine" and "Daniel Sturgeon/Pennsylvania". 8x6½ album leaf. In all 8 signatures of U.S. Senators. The 30th U.S. Congress met during the final two years of James Polk's Presidency, and ratified the treaty ending the Mexican War. It was the only Congress in which Abraham Lincoln served. All 8 signers here were members of the majority Democratic Party, although Hannibal Hamlin would later become a Republican. Government was divided, since the Whig Party controlled the House of Representatives. This was arguably the last pre-Civil War Congress not dominated by sectional animosity, although legislation advanced by some of the signers here would help aggravate tensions during the tumultuous 1850s. HANNIBAL HAMLIN (1809-1891) represented Maine in the U.S. House (1843-1847) and Senate (1847-1861, 1869-1881) and briefly as Governor of Maine (1857). As Abraham Lincoln's running mate, he became the first Republican Vice President. Hamlin had a good working relationship with Lincoln, but was replaced on the ticket in 1864 because it was felt a border state Senator (Andrew Johnson) improve Lincoln's re-election prospects. Ironically, Hamlin would vote to remove Johnson from the Presidency during the Impeachment trial of 1868. STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS represented Illinois in Congress from 1843-1847 and was U.S. Senator from 1847 to his death in 1861. He was one of Mary Todd's suitors but she chose Lincoln to marry "because he had the best chance of becoming President of the United States". Douglas defeated Abraham Lincoln for the U.S. Senate in 1858 after a series of debates across the state and was defeated by Lincoln for the presidency in 1860 receiving 12 electoral votes to Lincoln's 180. (Douglas received a respectable 29.5 % of the vote in a 4-way contest, to Lincoln's 39.8%.) Douglas' answer to the slavery question was "popular sovereignty": territories seeking admission to the Union should decide to allow or disallow slavery by a popular vote. This approach, which led to virtual civil war in Kansas after passage of Douglas' Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, satisfied neither staunch opponents nor supporters of slavery. SOLOMON W. DOWNS (1801-1854) represented Louisiana in the Senate for a single term, 1847-1853. Formerly a U.S. Attorney, he was appointed by President Pierce as Collector of Customs for New Orleans. ANDREW "A. P." BUTLER (1796-1857) represented South Carolina in the Senate from 1846 until his death. An ardent defender of slavery, Butler co-authored with Stephen Douglas the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which undid the Compromise of 1850 by allowing territories to vote on whether they to enter the Union as slave or free states. Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner's vitriolic denunciation of the absent Butler in a Senate speech in 1856 prompted U.S. Representative Preston Brooks to beat Sumner senseless with a cane, further inflaming North-South tensions leading up to the Civil War. Irish-born JAMES SHIELDS (1810-1879) is the only person to have represented three states in the Senate: Illinois (1849-1855), Minnesota (1858-1859) and Missouri (1879). A brigadier general who served with distinction in the Mexican War and (with less distinction) in the Civil War, Shields almost fought a duel with Abraham Lincoln. (The two actually met for a duel, but their seconds persuaded Shields that Lincoln had not written inflammatory letters attributed to him.) PIERRE SOULÉ (1801-1870), born in France, represented Louisiana in the U.S. Senate (1847, 1849-1853). Appointed U.S. Minister to Spain by President Pierce, he was co-author of the notorious Ostend Manifesto of 1854, calling for annexation of Cuba and its admission to the Union as a slave state. JAMES WHITCOMB (1795-1852) was the Democratic Governor of Indiana (1843-1848), credited with steering the state through a financial crisis. He served in the U.S. Senate from 1849 until his death. Physician and banker DANIEL STURGEON (1789-1878) represented Pennsylvania in the U.S. Senate from 1840 to 1851. Binding holes at left edge. Toned. Paper tape at top edge. Corners and edges worn and creased. Torn at center top edge. Otherwise, fine condition.

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